How to make the foundation for the garage with his hands
Even a person who is not versed in constructionactually it understands that every building must have a solid foundation. This does not matter, you are building a two-storey spacious house or garage for the car, the foundation must be reliable and durable. Let's look at how to make the foundation for the garage to the construction and operation no problems. To carry out this process on their own need to know all the important steps.
- Geological surveys - an important preliminary step
- Adaptations to the basement garage under construction
- 1. Units of reinforced concrete
- 2. The fixed formwork for pouring monolithic base
- 3. Removable formwork - the most common way
- Stages of the foundation unit for the garage
- Installation of the formwork for pouring the foundation
- Laying fixtures
- Pouring concrete formwork
Geological surveys - an important preliminary step
Before you build a foundation for garage with his hands necessary to conduct geological surveys. They will give an idea of the depth of the groundwater and the composition of the underlying layers. This process consists in sampling from small wells at the site of the future construction. What follows is an analysis of the collected specimens.
On soils that are waterlogged or poorly absorb moisture, drainage device mandatory.
Inexperienced owners, making the foundation for the garagewith his hands, passed the stage of preparation. And for good reason. Such irresponsibility leads to undesirable consequences. In winter, the water in the soil freezes and expands, and spring thaws. This leads to deformation of the foundation, and perhaps most of the garage.
Therefore, in any case, do not neglect this stage of construction. Well, that's part of the soil is determined. The next stage of the calculation of the foundation under the garage, it is desirable to entrust to specialists.
But if you decide to do everything yourself, you know that the type of soil depends on the depth of the basement under the garage. Around it looks like this:
- rock. Very tight, requiring a lot of effort in processing. But the garage can be built directly on leveled ground without digging a trench.
- Gravel. The depth of the foundation should not be below the freezing depth.
- Clayey. The depth of the foundation is below the freezing depth.
- Sandy. foundation depth: 40-70 cm.
- Sandy loam. The depth of the foundation is not less than 2 m.
- Peatlands. On such soils it is impossible to build, you need to do to vytorfovku mineral base (completely remove the peat layer and replace it with gravel and sand).
Adaptations to the basement garage under construction
Blocks of concrete
For such a process will be needed in addition to themselvesblocks, hoisting machines and hired a team of builders. Without it, you can not manually set the heavy concrete structures in the trench. This method is the most expensive.
Permanent formwork for pouring monolithic base
The main element in this preparatorythe event is building a box. After work, he is one of the components of the foundation design. Made this element can be made of concrete or polystyrene. In the first variant between two concrete slabs laid and fittings poured concrete.
In the second are used instead of concrete slabspolystyrene sheets. This method provides additional insulation of the basement and is very easy to perform. Fold and seal the necessary elements can even uninformed people in the building. Homemade permanent formwork difficult to manufacture, and not everyone can do it right. Therefore, rarely resorted to this method.
Removable formwork - the most common way
Stages of the foundation unit for the garage
Let us consider how to make the foundation for thegarage with removable formwork. First, in a selected area is drawn plan of the future building. Required tools: wooden stakes, tape, rope. In the corners of the proposed structure are driven poles between which stretched rope.
The width of the foundation is greater than the width of the walltwenty centimeters. But the depth of the basement under the garage depends on the composition of the soil. The bottom of the excavated trench is filled with sand (5 cm) and gravel (10 cm). This process is done in several steps, after each layer is compacted carefully.
Installation of the formwork for pouring the foundation
Some believe that the foundation for thegarage complicated task because of the formwork installation. But they are wrong. This process is time-consuming, but doable. Formwork - a box, the base for pouring concrete, which is removed after solidification of the solution. It consists of wooden boards, tightly fitted to each other, that there are no gaps through which fluid may flow. All boards must be installed exactly (for this use level) and durable. To do this, set the outside props.
From iron bars 10-12 mm thick made"grid". To this end, 5 cm above the bottom of the well placed along the length of the rod 2 on rasstoyanii5 cm from the formwork, across which the rods are short stacked. The distance between the short rods 40-50 cm. Attachment 'grid' is performed at intersections of special wire or welding. This also mounted vertical bars. A 20-30 cm is welded to them following a short rods. As a result, should get a grille.
Pouring concrete formwork
After the execution of the preparatory work isone question: how to pour the foundation for the garage? This step must be performed at a time. Otherwise, it can be formed connecting seams. One person can not perform this operation quickly and correctly, so it is advisable to have assistants. During the pouring of concrete at the level of "sole" is the foundation waterproofing. For this purpose, use roofing felt.
After pouring the foundation must beto maintain compliance with the temperature and humidity conditions and protected from direct sunlight and wind. Therefore, construction in summer wetness coated materials (thick cloth, sacking, matting) and periodically sprayed with water. On rainy days, the surface is closed waterproofing material, protecting it from excessive moisture. Top attain to the level of the foundation until the concrete has not yet frozen. The formwork is removed only after complete solidification of the solution.
As the concrete hardens for a long time devicefoundation for the garage, it is desirable to make a couple of months before the erection of walls. The foundation is an underground construction which must withstand the load of the structure. The main demands made by these structures - the resistance to external influences, stability and durability in compliance with technical regulations will be "at a height".