Fill the foundation with his own hands
To build a house on their own are not enoughdesire and labor, requires precise calculation and knowledge of technology. Construction of buildings consists of several stages, the main of which - pouring of the foundation. Once selected plot of land, furnished all the documents, designed and bought all the material start to the process. Besides saving Shading foundation with his own hands It allows the user to control allprocess and compliance technology. Another important point - all work on the laying of the foundation and construction of the building, it is desirable to carry out in a single season. Otherwise, no load walls, roofs and floors under the influence of external factors, the structure can be deformed.
- The first stage - soil analysis and the choice of design
- Required material for work
- pouring the foundation technology
- The preparatory stage - reinforcement, waterproofing, ventilation device
- Description pouring process
The first stage - soil analysis and the choice of design
From the structure of the soil depends on the type and materialthe foundation for the construction. To determine the composition of the soil is necessary to take a few samples of earth from pits depth of 1 m. The wet soil in winter are frozen to a considerable depth, which leads to the displacement of the foundation. In the spring due to the looseness and humidity settles the foundation soil. The composition of the foundation soil throughout the length is different, so these processes lead to cracks on the design. Because of these metamorphoses soils are divided into nepuchinistye and distending. The most prominent representative of the latter is the so-called ground quicksand (sand and silty clay). On such soils is not desirable to build buildings. For slabopuchinistyh soil structure selected from the expanded clay, rubble and cement. Srednepuchinistyh foundation on ground made of concrete or solid blocks on the solution.
The most difficult to build houses onsilnopuchinistyh soils. Here it is advisable to use a monolithic design and reinforced concrete blocks with a strong ligament and tamp thoroughly before pouring the construction site.
When erecting a massive structure onsilnopuchinistyh buried soils is the foundation of reinforced concrete monolithic slabs below the freezing point. With mandatory protective soles underneath and on top of the concrete slab.
Required material for work
No matter what the filling technologyfoundation, as a result of strong and resistant to stress the design should get. Therefore, when choosing the material, give preference to the most robust: reinforced concrete, metal, natural stone, asbestos cement pipes, antiseptic wood.
Regardless of the type of soil and the type of facilities mostan ideal material for the construction of reinforced concrete foundation is considered. The versatility of this material is caused by the ability to create complex, monolithic structures, its durability and relatively low price. It made a foundation made of cement, sand, gravel in the formwork with reinforced bars or mesh. Prefabricated structures are constructed of factory units, which are stacked in a trench or pit.
On rocky or sandy soils may be lightused rubble concrete. Large stones using cement-sand mortar to form a sufficiently strong structure, the quality of which depends on the absence of voids and proper bandaging of seams. Before applying to the stones necessary to remove dirt and dust.
pouring the foundation technology
First transferred to the plan of bearing walls andpiers of the countryside. And the foundation width is greater than the width of the walls is 20 cm. The corners are driven poles between which stretched twine or fishing line. This markup is the benchmark by which digs a trench depth required. Home no more than three floors, all the height of the foundation must be at least 60-100 cm and 10-15 cm of its fall on an elevated part. This part is built with a wooden formwork panels measuring 25 by 150 mm. Nails are driven inside the formwork and are bent outside. The ends of the structures for closer connections are fixed with screws and the most attracted to each drugu.Eto able to prevent the formation of cracks through which the solution will leak. The height of the formwork is done by a few centimeters above the fill level.
To the foundation lines were kept strictlyhorizontally, it is necessary to use a water level. The formwork transverse struts are placed every half meter, so that the concrete is crushed wooden boards. To structure does not shrink, and the foundation does not need to be deformed dense solid foundation. To this end, the bottom of the trench is filled with sand, a layer of which should be at least 5 cm. And the sand carefully compacted. This process helps water. Wet sand is easily compacted. To seal the sand, you can use the board width slightly smaller than the width of the ditch, which is packed full of convenient handle.
The preparatory stage - reinforcement, waterproofing, ventilation device
Prerequisite create a strong structure not subjected to deformation is to use foundation reinforcement. To the board will not absorb water from the solution andwere clean, the inner walls of the formwork boards covered with glassine paper. It is attached by means of staples 10 cm below ground level. The top level of the foundation of the future is marked by means of line and level. Reinforcement bars shall not be closer than 3-5 cm from the base boundaries. For reinforcement bars are taken secheniem12 mm, and is a lattice with cells around 30 to 40 cm.
For greater strength it is desirable that lengthconstruction was less of compounds to be either wired or welded. In order to avoid moisture in the structure and under-floor ventilation is done. For these purposes, you can use the asbestos-cement pipe, which is tied to the bars at the level of the formwork walls. Before pouring the foundation inside the pipe is filled with sand to cement is not plugged the hole. Subsequently, the ventilation is desirable to use a plug that can be used, depending on the climatic conditions. This step is not limited gasket includes the necessary communications.
Description pouring process
The next step - pouring the concrete foundation of thethree parts sand, one of cement and four gravel. Water is added until such time until you get the consistency similar to a thick cream. The strength of the foundation is directly proportional to the density of the solution. The required amount of concrete is calculated using the formula: height multiplied by the perimeter of the foundation, and then to the wall thickness. The process should take place quickly and in one go. Therefore, to fill the basement with their own hands, it is desirable to attract mates, so that the process went quickly and efficiently. Not bad for this purpose to use the mixer. This will not only facilitate and speed up the process, but also improve the quality of the concrete.
To prevent the formation of airbubbles formed during operation ram solution. Regardless of soil moisture, require construction waterproofing. For this purpose the foundation laid at ground level 2 layers of roofing material. But the underground part of the foundation coat with hot bitumen several times. The solution is filled up to the upper level. The surface is desirable to carefully smoothed with a trowel. The final stage - laying of waterproofing roofing material or any insulating material. If the weather is wet, it is desirable to cover the design, and if it's hot - periodically sprayed with water. Formwork is removed no earlier than 3 days. Better to do it even later to complete solidification of the solution.
The result is that self-pour the foundation - not so difficult. As they say: "Eyes are afraid, but the hands are doing". The main use of quality materials, process compliance and diligence. Keep in mind at all stages of pouring use water level and plumb.