Even with the construction of communism in our timethe country has become a tradition to organize the basement garage. It is necessary to store food: vegetables and fruit grown in suburban areas. Residents of high-rise buildings is simply no other way to keep grown so hard to harvest. Construction of the basement - a very serious matter. If you do not follow the technology, you can create an ideal environment for life pathogens. Despite the fact that a successful and long-term storage of vegetables in the basement has to be defined sufficiently high humidity, however, it should be moderately. If the basement has lodged a mold or other fungi, the crop goodbye. That is why basement waterproofing - the most important stage of its construction.
- How to protect your basement from water
- Waterproofing of the basement floor
- To the wall did not let the water
- Isolate built inside the cellar
- Penetrating Basement Waterproofing
- Paint waterproofing types
How to protect your basement from water
This article will talk about how to properlymake waterproofing the basement in the construction phase. And also will be affected by the question of what to do if you become the proud owner of a garage with a basement without waterproofing.
Waterproofing of the basement is divided into several types:
Protivonapornaya waterproofing - Waterproofingthe basement of the groundwater level which is above the basement floor level or even its walls. Cake is a drawing of at least 3 layers of slurry solutions which are combined with a polymer-based mastics bitumen.
Gravity basement waterproofing protects it from moisture, accumulated after rainfall or flooding. Is applied to the surface of the floor bituminous mastics.
Protivokapillyarnaya waterproofing protects againstpenetration through the concrete floor or the walls of moisture, which can rise up through the capillaries. In addition to the measures protivonapornoy waterproofing insulation made seams, cracks and capillaries.
Waterproofing of the basement floor
Qualitatively isolate the floor can only be at the stageconstruction. There are methods of floor insulation is already in the process of exploitation of the finished garage, but waterproofing the inside will not be enough. Therefore, if you decide to build a cellar in the garage or house, you must perform such work:
- We expect the depth of the pit, whichyou need to dig. To do this, take into account the height of the ceiling in the basement of the future, the height of the ceilings, concrete floors, and the thickness of a preparatory layer. Most often, the basement ceiling in the garage bury below the ground freezing, approximately 0.5-1 m. Therefore, the pit depth should be 3.3-3.5 m.
- Digs a pit, not only to the desired depth, even retreating at least 1 m from the future of the foundation and walls everything for waterproofing the walls.
- Flatten the surface, making slight slope from the center in opposite directions. Fall asleep to 10 cm layer of clay and compacted. In the future it will serve us in an earthen castle.
- Digs drainage trench. The depth of 30-50 cm. To give them a bias towards the structure.
- Spread out on the bottom of the trench geotextiles, wrapping his trench edge to 80-90 cm.
- The entire length of the trench fell asleep 5 cm layer of gravel.
- We put drainage pipes, making the slope of 0.5 cm to 1 meter running.
- Fall asleep 20-30 cm layer of gravel, which is pre-rinse is better to avoid clogged pipes.
- We wrap the remaining geotextile. Print the drainage pipes or manholeOr in the discharge manifold, or in the pit.
Important! Drainage is required in order to collect and divert the water drained in special places (wells). For it is possible to use special perforated asbestos-cement pipes, ceramic or plastic.
10. The pit fall asleep 10-15 cm layer of gravel, the top 10-15 cm of sand. Rammed.
Important! The sand is needed in order not to damage the sharp edges of rubble roll waterproofing.
eleven. On the prepared surface roll out some kind of roll waterproofing. Suitable roofing material. Weld joints of a gas burner. The first layer coat with bitumen mastic, put the next layer. It is necessary to make at least two layers. If the groundwater level is above the basement floor, then the layers should be 3-4.
Important! If a basement is for storage of products, then insulate its floor is not necessary. The coolness of the ground in the cold season will provide the required temperature. In this case it is necessary to insulate the floor of the first floor.
12. Prepare the formwork for the floor and pour concrete.
Important! It is advisable to use waterproof rigid concrete mixes. It is not superfluous walls and pour concrete, but it can be used and the red brick.
If you are interested in the question of how to make waterproofing the basement, where he had built, then the answer is you will read below. It is necessary to seal the wall just outside and the inside.
The outer wall of the basement will have to dig to a depth of almost the entire basement and equip a clay castle and the blind area.
To the wall did not let the water
If the walls decide to build a brick, then perform the usual clutch. If you decide to make concrete, while preparing the formwork for walls and poured concrete.
Important! Sand-lime brick is not suitable for the construction of the basement.
Further waterproofing the basement with their hands is as follows:
- Plaster walls on both sides with a solution of 1 part cement + 2 parts water.
- Glued roll waterproofing in two layers.
- We are building outside wall clamping. It can be made of red brick in a brick.
Important! Pressing wall is necessary in order to maintain and protect the waterproofing layer roll.
4. Perform a clay castle at a distance of at least 0.5 m from the wall. We are doing it with a bias, as shown in the figure. A layer of clay has to be 100 mm, thicken it with wooden bars. This layer must coincide with the clay layer under the floor so as to be one piece.
Important! Clay lock prevents contact of groundwater with the pressing wall.
5. Fall asleep space between the castle and the earthen wall primer. Top glinoschebenochnuyu do blind area. From the walls make a small slope, rainwater dripped beyond the cellar, and in the other direction.
6. The outer part of the wall, protruding above the ground, treat surface waterproofing.
This all works on waterproofing the basement walls from the outside are completed, you can proceed to the inner workings.
Isolate built inside the cellar
First we coat all joints between floor andwalled mastic asphalt. It is desirable to concrete structures (floor or floor and walls) in advance to handle the penetrating waterproofing, to improve the effect. However, this work should be carried out only until the concrete has not yet frozen through. If the works are carried out in an already finished the basement, then the flooring is greased only with mastic.
If the walls are made of bricks or blocks, between which there are gaps, we coat all cracks waterproofing mastic 2 cm thick.
You can then process of coating mastic light texture. The wall will become a uniform color.
Top plaster wall cement mixture. To fasten the stiffening frame of the valve to the wall. Then Plasterer layer of 3-4 cm.
For good preservation of products in its basement walls can be treated biologically resistant coating.
Bitumen can take any brand, and cement onlywaterproof. The bitumen is melted at a temperature of 1500-1700 ° C, add the remaining ingredients according to the recipe, stir for 20 minutes and use as hot.
This waterproofing inside the basement with his own hands is completed. Next, consider a little more material for waterproofing.
Penetrating Basement Waterproofing
Penetrating waterproofing ismaterial from the mixture of cement, chemical surfactants and fine sand. The substance penetrates the walls and the floor is 100 mm and crystallized inside. This occurs due to fluid structure and small grain size.
Important! Penetrating waterproofing used as protivokapillyarnoy isolation. Inside the concrete form hydrophobic crystals, preventing the raising of the water through the capillaries.
Besides increased frost resistance of concrete andpreventing its corrosion. This technology has an antibacterial composition, non-toxic, which makes possible its use in cellars with food.
Varies penetrating waterproofing method of application and depth of penetration.
For example, "Hydrotex" penetrate up to 100 mm, applied by trowel, brush can be. Consumption: 3 kg / m2. Maximum strength of 3 mm corresponds to a mark M 500. It has a double action.
"Penetron" penetrate up to 200 mm, applied with a brushon a wet surface, a layer of 1-2 mm. The water acts as a solvent. Capillaries closes, preventing the penetration of water, but does not prevent the movement of steam.
Important! Penetrating waterproofing is used only in wet concrete. The material treated with it, is able to withstand any pressure of groundwater, its share increased significantly.
Paint waterproofing types
If the groundwater level below the floor of the basement, as a waterproofing can be used bitumen, bitumen-polymer, polymer and polymer-cement mixture.
Applied bituminous mastics, pastes and emulsions in layers 2.6 mm thick.
Bitumen-Polymer Paint waterproofing bettera bitumen in performance due to the addition of the polymers, such as latex. Required layer ranges from 5 to 12 mm, depending on composition.
Bitumen-nairitovuyu mastic (BNM) can be used at temperatures down to -15 ° C, enough to put a layer of 3-4 mm.
Epoxy coatings and maloplastichnyh shrink due to too composed of pure resin.
Epoxy-wood tar waterproofing stronger, it has minimal shrinkage and gets frozen with an external ice during freezing of the building.
Epoxy furan waterproofing is more toxic, although it requires less application layer.
Important! epoxy resins Waterproofing can be done from the outside of the basement, and inside. Its major drawback is too much rigidity.
Okleechnaya waterproofing roofing material, roofing paper or other roll materials are most popular and holds the position for decades.
On the market there are many tools andmaterials for waterproofing. When choosing them, should pay attention to their characteristics and operating conditions. But most importantly, quality basement waterproofing perform at all stages.