The filter well
Purification of domestic sewage in a country houseIt is a must event at their removal. At the moment when the environmental issue is relevant as never before, we must remember that the removal of raw sewage into the ground is prohibited. It is in this regard after the treatment facilities in suburban homes should be provided facilities underground filtration. For the treatment of domestic sewage, as a rule, used a variety of septic tanks, after which - according to current sanitary regulations - set the filter well, sand and gravel filters, underground filtration field or filter trenches.
The choice of construction depends on:
- soil type;
- the depth of the groundwater;
- the presence of the aquifer and other factors.
It is worth noting that for the biological treatment of waste water is currently the most commonly used filter wells.
- What is the filter well?
- Where to build a well for wastewater treatment?
- The device of the local sewage treatment plant
- Bottom filter filling structure
- The walls of the well for filtering
- Overlapping and ventilation well
What is the filter well?
The filter is wellspecial construction, the main purpose of which is the biological treatment of domestic sewage in the local sewer system. The need for a device of this treatment plant is often due to the inability to discharge sewage into any body of water through the drainage system.
Typically, in such cases, the house is too far from the water body or land is characterized by the lack of bias. It therefore becomes necessary to withdraw the waste water into the soil.
Experts note that the filter wellscan act as self-drainage facilities, or as an additional tool for water. In the first case portion is mounted on the well, if the volume of water does not exceed 1 m3 per day. In the latter case the well is used for purification of waste water before discharge them directly into the soil.
Where to build a well for wastewater treatment?
For the filtering device must be wellcarefully collect information on the ground. The fact that the shafts can hold only those soils which are suitable for filtration. These include peat, sand and sandy loam soils with low content of clay particles. As for the clay and loam, with a low filtration rate, the data structures of the device are meaningless, because the filtration wells can not be used effectively.
Do not install wells forbiological treatment of wastewater in the fractured rocks due to the fact that in this case there is no water filtration. However, in the absence of an organized flow contaminated water can get into drinking water sources. Because in areas with soils have low filtration properties, apply other water treatment methods.
In close depending on the conditionthe soil is well filtration area. For sandy soil, it can be up to 3 m2, and for sandy loam - 1,5 m2. Filtration area, in turn, determines the period of operation of the well, the larger it is, the more the life of the filter well.
Efficient operation of the filter wellachieved by its proper device based on the depth of groundwater. Normal operation of the filter is provided by the well when the level of groundwater is below its filter bed of about 0.5 m. In this case, the base of the drainage system should be above the groundwater level at 1 m. If on the land where the villa is located, sufficiently high level of groundwater from wells for filtering devices have to give.
Do not forget about the freezing depth. The filter should be placed well below the level of soil freezing, which depends on the climatic conditions of a particular region of the country. So, it is about 1.3 m above the ground in central Russia.
The device of the local sewage treatment plant
The main elements of the well for filtering wastewater are:
- bottom filter;
Bottom filter filling structure
Most often, the bottom filter is filling the well, made of crushed stone, gravel, clinker ash, brick fragments and similar materials with them.
The diameter of the used fractions varies over a fairly wide range - 10-70 mm. This filling is done more often to a height of about 1 m.
It is worth noting that in a well purified fromsuspended particles of water enters the septic tank through the pipe that is to be positioned slightly above the filter surface. Most often, this distance is 0.2 m. Place jet falling to the bottom filter is hiding a special antiseptic shield, allowing evenly distribute the waste water in the well. In addition, this measure helps to prevent erosion of the filter filling.
The walls of the well for filtering
The walls of the well can be made of the mostdifferent materials. It can be not only a special reinforced concrete rings for the filter well, but also an old barrel, solid clay brick or rubble stone.
Particular attention should be paid to the fact that inthe walls of the well should be left or a specially punched holes. They should be evenly distributed over the height of the bottom of the filter. As a rule, they are performed in a checkerboard pattern and have a diameter of 4-6 cm. It is worth considering that the area of all holes should not exceed the surface of the walls 10%.
On the outer side of the filter walls Householdthe well water are also carried out the filling material, which was used for stacking the bottom of the filter. The height of the backfill must be equal to the height of the filter, and the thickness is usually 30-50 cm.
Overlapping and ventilation well
The filter well as a septic tank, compulsoryprocedure must have a vent pipe. Its installation in the overlap of the treatment plant. In this case the top of the pipe must be located above the ground at a distance of about 70 cm, in addition, it must be equipped with an element such as a vane.
It is believed that the optimum diameter of the ventilationthe tube is 10 cm. There is no doubt, sticking out above ground pipe can spoil the landscape, but to solve this problem can be easily, camouflaged pipe beautiful climbing plants.
In addition to the ventilation pipe in the ceiling of the wellmounted hatch, which often reaches a diameter of 70 cm. Its special feature is the presence of two covers. The first of these - the carrier, the second - and the weighting is below. Between the covers you need to leave a space, which is subsequently filled one way or another insulating material. This standard may be rockwool or perlite bags.
Currently filtering wells for cleaningwastewater seldom performed diameter greater than 2 meters and a depth of 3 meters. In the case where the area of the sewage treatment plant is too large, it is recommended to arrange on land area than a big well, a few small. This need may arise, for example, the well area of 4 m2 or more for large volumes of sewage. We should not forget the fact that the waste water must be removed from an existing source of drinking water for a distance of at least 30 m.
Thus, the filter wells area practical and functional element of the system of sewage country house. Competent approach to their device will not harm the environment.