How is the cabling
Replacing or laying new wiring in the apartmentor private home - the problem is very, very time-consuming. Since I decided to make the modernization of the electrical network, have to deal with such works as cabling. Depending on the wiring space, the operating conditions of premises and individual preferences it is necessary to make a variety of ways. What are the ways of gaskets is described in this article.
- Wiring in the corrugated pipe
- Laying cables in trenches
- When the need of the pipe
- Laying of cable trays
- Practical cable channels
- Laying cables in sewers
Wiring in the corrugated pipe
To run a cable over the floor, wall or ceiling using the corrugation. This wiring can be both hidden and open.
Corrugation is a corrugated pipe,made of PVC or metal. Inside lies a metal wire, which can be used to stretch a cable inside the pipe. In recent years, increasingly used corrugated PVC for electrical cables and wires inside. This is due to the fact that their weight and price somewhat less metal.
Corrugated pipe can be used in residential,technical, administrative and industrial buildings. Material corrugations serves as an additional insulator for cable and has the ability to self-extinguishing, which greatly reduces the possibility of spontaneous combustion due to a short circuit.
Gofra suitable for different types of cable, differentdiameter as manufactured in several sections with variations: 16 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm, 50 mm and 63 mm. Through it can stretch as the power electric cable, and related information networks.
Important! Corrugated polyvinyl chloride may be used only for the cable indoors. The material from which it is made, is sensitive to ultraviolet solar radiation, temperature and humidity. Although for laying in open spaces there is a separate class of corrugations.
cable laying work in the ripple is more convenientproduce together. First we need to pull out a piece of wire from the pipe. Then, make a hole in the winding of the cable, and thread the wire into it, carefully twist. Corrugated pipe, it is desirable to level, one person should hold the distal end of the corrugations and the second stretching the cable, pulling the steel wire of the corrugations. When the cable is fully stretched, connect it tightly with tape flexi hose to the design did not move.
It is convenient to fix the corrugated wall with clips -clamps, whose diameter can be matched to the pipe section. This method is often used for laying the cable in suspended ceilings and plasterboard partitions. If the corrugation laid on the floor under the concrete floor, you need to buy a special - reinforced, capable of supporting the load.
Laying cables in trenches
In suburban areas and in suburban homesstretching the power cable between buildings and outdoor lighting can be air and underground mining. Air method is appropriate, if the distance between the objects is small. Underground method is suitable for the cable over long distances or outdoor lighting equipment. This method is more aesthetic, as there are no garlands hanging over his head, but it has several limitations:
- Laying cables in the trench is not allowed if the groundwater level is high. For example, in wetlands it may be up to 1 m and above.
- The soil contains a large number of substances that can damage or break the cable sheath.
- Stray currents in the ground is extremely negative impact on the wiring.
- The structure of the soil is too mobile.
- In places where the soil will be dug too often also desirable to lay cable.
If there are no contraindications to your site is notidentified, you can start laying the cable. To begin to make a layout area. The cable must be located no closer than 1 m from the tree, get car parks, playgrounds for arrival assenizatorskaya machines and other places of high load on the ground.
Further procedure for laying cable in the trench is as follows:
1. digs a trench for the previously executed layout. The minimum allowable depth is 0.7 m, but for convenience is better to make 0.8 -. 0.9 m.
2. From the trenches remove all kinds of materials and substances that may damage the cable jacket: glass, stone, iron, wire, etc.
3. At the bottom pour sand layer 10 cm.
4. We buy cable:
- For small capacity and sections - cable VVG;
- For medium and large capacity - AVBbShv cable, armored with steel galvanized tapes and flame retardant.
- For medium and large capacity - VBbShv cable - armored copper cable (more expensive).
5. Check and make sure that there are no conductive circuits lived among themselves and with the armor with a megohmmeter.
Important! You must be sure to remove the charge from the cable after a Megger test. To do this, connect to each other conductor and armor and closes it all to the ground. At the same time we observe the precautions stand on a rubber mat, rubber boots and gloves, and in the presence of a partner.
6. Securing the cable. To do this, you can use different materials: corrugated plastic pipe, corrugated metal or metal double-walled pipe. The choice depends on the budget and preference. Route cables through protective material. If you decide to use the PVC corrugated further protect Cases of contact places with large solid objects and the other capable of damaging the cable. The case can be made of asbestos-cement pipes, sawn it in half and put on both halves.
7. Puts cable to the bottom of the trench. Doing this is not tautly and waves to cable lying loose.
Important! It is advisable to draw a plan - cable layout on the site to not further damage it.
8. filled with sand - 10 cm.
9. On top of the ground - 15 cm. Lightly tamped.
10. Route the signal over the cable tape.
11. fully covered with soil, making a small mound. Once again, we check for shorts. If everything is in order, you can use it.
When the need of the pipe
Pipes for installation of wiring used inenvironments with high humidity levels and a sharp temperature drop. For example, in the bath, basement, unheated buildings. It is also an indication for the use of steel pipes can serve as a high fire risk premises. For example, if the house is completely made of wood.
In addition to living quarters a method of layingcable is used in industrial buildings, production halls and other buildings where there are high mechanical loads, corrosive chemicals, vapors and gases, as well as high opportunity dust and hazardous substances on the wiring.
outdoors for laying the cable usedplastic, asbestos cement, steel and other pipe to protect the wiring from aggressive soils, stray currents and mechanical damage.
In accommodation, laying cable in the pipeIt made both hidden and open way. If you plan on laying in Stroebe, pipe mounted directly in Stroebe wall or the floor, and then render over. When laying the way open pipes are attached to the wall using brackets or clamps.
Important! The vertically laid broach cable pipes should be done from the bottom up.
To connect pipes with each other can be appliedwelding sleeves and cuffs without seal if a dry room. And you can take advantage of threaded couplings. The rotary field is desirable to use a knee on the thread. At the same time in order not to damage the cable when broaching on the sharp edge of the pipe, in such places are laid plastic sleeve.
Important! To the condensate does not accumulate on the surface of the pipe, and rolled with them, the pipes are mounted with a light slope.
Laying of cable trays
This method of installation of the power cable used in electrical rooms, technical floors of buildings, basements, pump, compressor, in the aisles of the shields, and other technical areas.
Laying of power cables in open trays have a number of advantages with respect to the laying of the pipes:
- Trays are much cheaper.
- You can always check your cables, since the tray cover is easily removed. You can replace a portion or add another cable.
- The cable is not pulled and laid mechanically, thereby avoiding unwanted wear of the cable sheath.
Fixed trays at a height of not less than 2 m above the floor level. Mounted on brackets and pendants. Connections are made with threads.
Practical cable channels
There are situations where fine finish premises has already been done, and suddenly there was a need to make cable wiring in the apartment. Or, for example, the house is completely made oftree as lay cable in this case? A good solution is to strip the cable into the cable - channel. The second of its name - the electrical box. This method is considered to be open.
Most often, the cable - channel is produced in whitecolor, but if you ask for, you can find a variety of shades under the wood. Thus, the box will have virtually no visually stand out on a wooden wall. The material used: plastic, steel or aluminum.
Cable installation is reduced to such works:
- Remove the lid from the box. Secure it to the wall on dowels. If the wall is too rough, it will not be easy to do.
- Route the cables. In the box he is no fixed.
Important! Cable - channel segments laid on 2 meters. If the total wiring length is large, for the temporary fixing of the cable at intervals you can install temporary fasteners in the form of pieces of cover.
- After all the cable laid, remove the time and put the lid on the stationary box.
Similarly, the cabling is done in the plinth with the cable - channel. Through it can be stretched wire telephony, internet access, computer and antenna cable.
Laying cables in sewers
The cable consists of a sewage manhole, Pipes and mounting devices. For cable laying in the existing sewers, or to create a new special organization hired, and obtained the necessary permits.
Such a method is considered the most reliable in the conditionscities. It ensures that the cable will not be damaged land and work will be protected from negative external influences. It is necessary to use a special cable for underground installation.
Each of the foregoing methods cablinggood on its stage of placing certain starting conditions. Remember, before you choose one or another method and start the cable laying, it is necessary to consult with a specialist. He may recommend a particular type of cable that is suitable in your situation, or will offer a completely different method of laying.