Often, in order to save hard-understandablefuture owners of suburban property employ different artists. The house is being built by one contractor and interior fittings entrusted to a completely different company. As a result, the design of stairs is necessary to "adapt" to these criteria, the more often the architect design data drawn only in the abstract.
Know how ladders are designed,It is necessary and those who build their own country house. Indeed, despite its apparent simplicity, designed for a comfortable safe handling structure can not be attributed to a simple list.
- What type of ladder you choose?
- The parameters necessary for the design of
- Pick up a comfortable and safe width
- The steepness or easier - stairs slope
- size calculations stage
- An imaginary center line
- Calculation of the height of passage
What type of ladder you choose?
The choice of material determines the ladderof capital at home and the degree of fire resistance of the structure. On the choice of form affects the area allocated for the construction of the staircase space, ceiling height, architectural style. The most convenient, ensuring maximum safe lifting and movement in the opposite direction recognize sloping structure with a march and 15yu steps.
However, limited space oftenIt makes us look for alternative in the compact space options to install complicated spiral staircases: drawings with their zabezhnymi steps can be "fit" virtually any project. The construction of two marches would take more space than a screw option, but less than a simple flat counterpart. In his project can be as winders and playground between marches.
If you intend to design and manufacturestairs to perform completely independently, it is desirable to pay attention to wood as a building material. It is easier to process, minor errors can be corrected and adaptations are not overly expensive. Unlike the monolithic structures, filled with concrete, all the components of the future structure should not be done at the site. It is going out of individual elements, like iron stairs: the drawing may be designed for the construction of any of the existing types (screw, half-pace, a shallow, U-shaped, semicircular, etc..).
The parameters necessary for the design of
Is preceded by measurement of the design work, you need to accuratelymeasured in terms of area, aperture size, the height from the bottom slab to the upper ceiling and covering power to the thickness of floor covering. If measurements are carried out with the presence of only rough floors on both levels, it is necessary to take into account the expected future floor height.
With a wide enough opening will have to increase the hole, cutting through concrete or saw off the excess wood beams.
Attention. The openings for stairs should be no communication.
To make educated drawing stairs to the secondfloor, require detailed floor plan on the ground. It should be clearly specified niches, ledges, doors and windows, if they are adjacent to the stairs. Measurements are carried out on the door trim, the window for accurate location and still need it to the floor, and the dimensions of the window sill.
Necessary characteristics for further calculations:
- width of the march;
- the number of stages.
All these parameters are dependent on each other, it can not be one of them just assign arbitrary.
Pick up a comfortable and safe width
When you move the ladder in any ofdirections users should not feel uncomfortable with the feeling of space is too narrow and dangerous. By width understand the distance between the two rails, or the distance between the handrail and the partition wall. Has the design of spiral staircases or odnomarshevyh elementary structures, to determine this parameter are used interchangeably construction standards:
- 125 cm lay in the draft if you want to achieve superior;
- 110 cm, if the construction will be located between the two walls;
- 90 cm, if the structure has two or enclosure adjacent one side of the wall;
- 80 cm with one fence permissible, if not to be used a ladder to carry bulky items;
- 70 cm are appropriate in the garden houses and residential buildings.
Please be aware that under the spiral staircases drawingsmust be carried out taking into account a minimum width of 110 cm, the optimal size of 140 cm. The width of the helical structures is the distance from the edge of the stage to the base of the central rack. If STAIR will be sent to each other, "forward", the distance should be at least 10 cm between them.
The steepness or easier - stairs slope
Parameter interconnected with steps and dimensionswith an area of projected construction. Steep stairs take up little space, but are comfortable, gentle options are convenient, but it will take away a lot of usable space. Wishes to combine the comfort and safety of movement with minimal loss of half-pace areas selected types themselves carry out or order the stairs drawing zabezhnymi steps or design project with the landing.
- Instead ladder with a slope of 23? you can make a gentle ramp.
- The most comfortable slope less than 23 ?, 37 ?.
- The slope of 45? It translates the design into the construction discharge down which can only be facing the ladder.
Over 50? bias can only be a ladder.
size calculations stage
The most convenient to move in both directions on the recognized ratio ladder equal to the sum of the width of the tread (g) multiplied with two riser height (h).
2 g + h = 62 to 64 cm (standard pitch of an adult in a straight path)
Any variation with values of height and widthstage must meet this requirement. Depending on the steepness of the future plant and the personal preferences of the calculated levels of properly selected dimensions.
Leg convenient lift to a height of no more than 32 cm,but the most comfortable step height of 15 cm is considered. Do risers above 17 cm is not recommended. If you are designing wooden stairs, constructions made of concrete or metal with two or more flights, it should be remembered that the most convenient way to one march was 10-15 degrees.
Depending on the purpose of the ladder is selectedthe width of the tread. At least it 20 cm, 32 cm standard recommended limit of 40 cm. Is permissible overhang of the tread on the riser, if the dimensions of the structure do not allow sufficiently wide tread. When designing the winders should be noted that less than 10 cm in width in their narrowest part should not be.
Note. All stages of the ladder should be congruent: equal to the width and height. The maximum deviation of 0.5 cm.
Number of treads in a stairway with landings is always one less than the number of risers, as one of the tread located on site.
An imaginary center line
Designer staircases with direct marchTraditionally it paves the middle. But in the middle of curvilinear designs marches carried out in line mentally 0.4-0.5 m from the edge of the desk or flight. Width winders along the middle line must be equivalent to the width of the steps simple direct marches.
Calculation of the height of passage
Clearance - characteristics that should be paid attention to if the independent designer is interested in providing comfort.
It is noticed that the passage height exceedingthe growth of human walking the stairs to 5 cm, it will instinctively bend down and draw the head. Because normal lumen recognized height from 1.9 m to 2.0 m. The height of the passage across the length of the ladder should be equivalent.
Having dealt with the nuances of the design, with the taskcalculation and construction of stairs without problems to cope anyone provide your home safe convenient design. For information about the design features will help the owners of suburban mansions, confidence building stairs outsource intelligently monitor the implementation.