A spiral staircase with his own hands
In a small area or a country housetwo-level apartment is nice and compact spiral staircases are often the only means of movement of people between floors. But in a spacious house neat spiral staircase with his own hands will be an alternative main entrance bridge connecting different floors accommodation with each other, as well as located in the basement or the attic of the building. It is somewhat lost in the comfort of a direct stairway, but it takes a lot less precious useful space for its construction requires less materials, but before you do yourself a spiral staircase, you must understand the structure of some of the rules of these structures.
- Types and variants of the design of spiral staircases
- How not to miscalculate the size of the design?
- How to calculate the structure and make it ergonomic?
- Technological features self-assembly
Types and variants of the design of spiral staircases
From the viewpoint of the visual attractiveness of hardlysyschetsya more striking element of the interior, than spiral staircases: photo bizarre beauties wriggling out of a variety of materials leave no one indifferent. Here and traditional wooden and solid stone, and delicate wrought iron spiral staircases and exotic structures made of transparent glass or plastic, bright - everyone is free to choose according to taste, interior style, imagination and financial possibilities.
But, despite such diverse design spiral staircases, structurally they can be divided into four main types:
1. A spiral staircase, wedge-shaped steps which rely wide end on the surrounding walls and narrow - on the central support column or a pillar of stone, wood or thickened steps fragments. By the walls of the stage are fixed mostly on the rails, but there are variations on the spiral or kosour bowstrings.
2. Free-standing, distant from the walls of the spiral staircase with cantilevered reinforced monolithic central support column steps.
3. A spiral staircase design with no central support column. Support for steps are spirally curved bowstring or stringers, which fades into the support rail. This is a very beautiful, elegant, but also the most difficult to manufacture spiral staircase design that requires experience and professionalism of the master.
4. Spiral staircase with a central support rod, as a rule, which is a thick-walled steel or asbestos cement pipe with a diameter of 50 mm. This is the traditional, most common staircase design, simple to manufacture and reliable in operation. After installation of the central rack and ladder can be painted or decorated with wood, ceramics, and so on. D.
Given the characteristics of manufacturing and installationmetal or wooden spiral staircase with his hands - the best option for the skilled homeowner seeking unaided equip their homes. At specialized sites of the Internet, you can find ready-made designs of spiral staircases, which is quite possible to use, making the necessary calculations for the design of its binding to a specific room.
How not to miscalculate the size of the design?
From practice it is known that in the most convenientOperating spiral staircases with no less than 800-900 mm span width. That is, the diameter of the entire ladder structure must be at least 2000 - 2200 mm, taking into account the diameter of the central rack and ladder width of the opening in the intermediate floor, which should be free to enter the ladder and its fences with handrails. The terms helical staircase structure may be circular, polygonal, oval or even rectangular.
In homes with a low movement intensitythe diameter of the auxiliary spiral staircases to the basement or the attic is quite admissible within 1400-1500 mm and a width of 550-600 mm tread. Production of spiral staircases with a diameter of more than 3000 mm is not appropriate: with the appropriate size of the opening is better to establish a comfortable and safe stairway.
The design of the staircase with steps, fortifiedon the central support of the least costly, and a spiral staircase with fastening device steps to the spirally curved bent-glued Bowstring difficult to implement and would cost considerably more expensive.
How to calculate the structure and make it ergonomic?
If the spiral staircase will be usedas the main, the width of its passage at least 800 mm is undesirable, since it does not allow to separate the two running towards each other people. When calculating the size and number of winders uses the same principles as for similar calculations for straight stairway:
- depth level in the middle line - not less than 200 mm;
- depth of the stage at a distance of 150 mm from the support column - not less than 100 mm;
- stage depth in the wide part of the stairs edge - less than 400 mm;
- diameter of the stairs - 1300 - 3300 mm;
- the diameter of the passage on the inner edge of the railing - 1200-3200 mm;
- March width - 530 - 1430 mm;
- aperture diameter in the ceiling - 1300 - 3300 mm.
An important design parameters in the design of the spiral staircase is comfortable for the person lifting height. Here is the calculation for the staircase 3000 mm in height and 800 mm in width of the march.
Staircase diameter equal to twice the width of the march, plus the diameter of the support stand (200 mm):
D = 800 x 2 + 200 = 1800 mm
Radius lift equals the sum of half the width of the stairway and supports the radius:
Rn = 400 + 100 = 500 mm
Using the circumference of the formulaschool course of geometry and the size of the average depth of the tread 200 mm, namely by dividing the length of the path of movement of the tread depth, calculate the number of steps in one turn of the stair construction:
L = 2 πr: 200 2 = 3.14 x 500 x 200 = 17.2
Rounding the resulting value, we determine that one turn of the spiral staircases should consist of 17 stages. Most often, the ladder consists of one coil, but may contain several.
Ergonomic step height is calculated in such athat the total height of the spiral coil provides a convenient and safe movement of tall man. To calculate the value to the growth of 180 cm 20 cm add operational and divide by the number of steps in one pass. Estimated height level is obtained:
h = 2000: 17 = 120 mm
Determine the required number of steps for a spiral staircase 3000 mm height:
3000 n = 120 = 25
Thus, for convenient movement of a spiral staircase 3000 mm high and 800 mm wide march should contain 25 to 120 mm height steps.
Some useful rules that make a spiral staircase durable, safe and comfortable:
- Exclusion from the spiral staircase risers design enhances its safety as foot rests firmly on the step and does not slide off with it, even in the narrow part.
- At the height of the passage of not less than 2000 mm provides a comfortable and safe movement of even a very tall man.
- should choose a place that can withstand the weight of the structure and at least two or three people to place and fixed pedestal spiral staircase.
- Placing stages overlap in severalcentimeters to one another for comfort of movement and further strengthens the entire structure by installing a bracket between the front and rear edges of the widened portion of two adjacent stages.
Technological features self-assembly
Armed with the calculations, you can buy in the storeharvesting stages in standard sizes of 400 x 800 mm or 300 x 1100 mm and 40 mm thick, cut out of these wedge-shaped stage in accordance with the project and proceed to the installation of the ladder. First, you need to install and firmly secure the support bracket, and then fasten it to the stage.
For those who are not too trusts producedown calculations, there is a more convenient option - prefabricated spiral staircases from domestic or foreign producers, which are easily assembled by the manufacturer's instructions.