The problem of leakage of the roof facing almostall the inhabitants of the upper floors of high-rise buildings, as well as owners of private homes. Living in a leaky roof quite uncomfortable: in the home increases the humidity in the ceiling appear stains, crumbling plaster, wallpaper waste moisture leads to mold and mildew odors. Among other things, it is also dangerous, because it can happen to close the wiring or the deflection of ceiling beams, trusses collapse. The roofs of private houses are repaired by the owners, and in the housing sector, the elimination of leakage of the roof is the responsibility of municipal services. What are the reasons that there is an emergency situation and what are the ways to eliminate it - this will be discussed in this article.
- Types of roof leaks
- Search spill area
- Causes of leaks roofing
- Roof repair of different materials
- Bitumen roof
- Roofing of metal
- Seam roof
- from tile roof
Types of roof leaks
To know how to deal with the problem of damage to the roof, it is necessary to determine its nature and character. The types of roof leaks is also called as precipitation, by which they were formed:
- Rain. If the roof leaks when it rains or shortly after it, it is likely to be damaged roofing or flooring depressurize places vertical adjacencies. Flat roofs often occur due to strain their base, which is due to displacement slabs as a result of the natural progress of the foundation.
- Snow. They are associated with the process of melting snow on the roof. Melt water freezes on the eaves of the roof, in gutters, valleys - the temperature at these locations, typically below zero. The resulting frost blocking the water flow, which leads to the roof leaks at the joints.
- Dry (summer) leaks cause surpriseresidents, as happens in a dry and warm season. They arise as a result of condensation in the roof space and wet insulation.
- Shimmering leaks are not associated with lossprecipitation. They do not depend on natural conditions and time of year. They are the cause of microcracks in roofing materials, as well as violations of technology, made during its installation.
Search spill area
To restore a damaged roof, you need to inspect the roof and find a place of leakage. This should be dealt with by specially trained people from municipal service or maintenance organization.
Attention! All work on the roof must only be carried out in dry weather, because wet to be on a pitched roof is unsafe.
Roof Inspection is carried out in the following order:
- Climbing up into the attic, assess the condition of the floor,waterproofing, trusses, roofing material overtures in search of wet and moldy areas that indicate the place of infringement of the roof membrane integrity.
- Visually assess the condition of the ridgeattachment aprons and isolation, particularly in the areas abutting roof covering elements to the vertical. At the same time, and inspect the wiring, it is necessary to disconnect if necessary.
- Further, the sinking to the bottom of the roof, exploreendy, clearing them from plant debris, as well as the cornice board and the bottom layer of the roof whose integrity may be compromised with strong winds and rains.
- Inspect the vents, allgutter system - pipes, chutes, hoppers, cleaned of debris, if necessary, check, whether there were mosses and lichens on the slopes, there are no dents, holes, cracks and chips on the roofing.
In some cases, the leakage place can bedetermined using a conventional roulette, comparing the place of location of the wet spot in the apartment with a corresponding area on the roof, while adhering to the ventilation ducts, sewage risers and other elements of the building.
Sometimes a visual inspection failed to revealdamage, although the leak continues. Then, after the rain you need to climb into the attic and chalk to mark a place of moisture penetration, and then in dry weather to patch it.
Causes of leaks roofing
Roof carpet, regardless of the shape of the roof,I must form a continuous waterproofing. If you violate the integrity of the layer water penetrates into the roof space and insulation can moisturize, reducing thus its effectiveness, and can seep through the ceiling to the walls.
If you create a roofing weremistakes, and the new roof can occur, particularly at the valleys at the points of junction of the roof to the walls, piping, parapets and other vertical elements. Damage can be of various sizes. Sometimes to eliminate the leak enough to hold easy repair, and in some cases can not do without the help of experts, as may be necessary to replace the entire roof "pie".
Having found out, in what place is leakingroof in the apartment building, you need to determine its cause, to go directly to the repair work. The main reasons for provoking damage to the roof, are as follows:
- excess roofing service life;
- damage to the roof membrane during operation and cleaning of snow on the roof;
- violation of the biological integrity of the roof as a result of the defeat of moss and fungus;
- reduction of roofing material elasticity due to sudden changes in temperature;
- natural aging of the roof due to wind, water and sunlight;
- wrong device turf roof, whereby the roof structure is destroyed by plant roots;
- the consequences of improper design or technological device roof mounting violations.
To find the cause of a leak in practice is not always easy.
This is especially true for pitched roofs, whereWater flows into one place, and the drip may be quite different. After all, even the most reliable roofing is never perfectly sealed: gusts of wind blew under it, and the rain, and snow.
Therefore, if there is leakage of the roof, you need a thorough inspection of the roof with the involvement of experts.
Roof repair is the responsibility of municipal services. Therefore, you should promptly submit an application to the housing office to repair the roof.
And not enough just to write thatthere was a leakage of the roof - the statement should reflect the whole picture of the problem, namely, when and by whom was seen leaking, apartment number in need of roof repairs, the approximate amount of damages, the requirement to take measures to eliminate the leakage. The representatives of the housing department must come and draw up a statement of the roof leak, and then during the day the organization is obliged to eliminate the leakage.
Roof repair of different materials
Procedure for repairing a roof depends on the nature and the scale of damage, as well as from the roof material. If the proceeds, for example, bituminous roofing, repairs can be local or capital.
Local repair is carried out on a relatively new coatings, where most of the roof has maintained its performance:
- around the damaged area is cut out a piece of the roof, making the indentation of at least 50 cm;
- formed hole poured liquid rubber, and can be a polymer compound.
If the coating has lost over time itselasticity, patching will not be saved: leaks in different places will arise constantly. In this case, you need to clean off the old coating to the ground and completely replace roofing carpet.
Roofing of metal
Leaks in the roof metallocherepichnoy arisedue to improper installation or breach of roofing pie device technology. In this case, depending on the cause of the defect, it is recommended to carry out the following work:
- Formed through damage to the solder and then treated with a rust inhibitor. If you have a large amount of damage to the sheet is replaced in its entirety.
- If screws become loose, they should be replaced with new ones. Tighten fasteners old does not make sense - the result will be short-lived.
- Leakage due to incorrect selection of materials for roofing "pie" is eliminated full replacement Roofing films
Defects occur on such roofs, usuallyjoints sheets. Leaks eliminate seams by re-rolling with a special tool. In addition, the joints are sealed with silicone or bitumen sealants. Here, just as in metallocherepichnoy roof, can be replaced entirely sheets, and you can make a patch that fixed by soldering or screws for aluminum.
from tile roof
The main problem of this material are cracks resulting from expansion from temperature changes and installation of non-compliance of the rules.
Types of repairs will depend on the cause of the defect:
- Strengthening truss construction will allow to avoid cracking during thermal deformation of the roof sections.
- New cemented joints will reduce the amount of damage.
If the cause is a leak sealing the gap between the rafters and battens, then coming more complex work, and they are carried out in the following sequence:
- with the repair area is removed tiles;
- remove the desired part of the rack and remove the damaged portion of waterproofing;
- put a patch, secure it with roofing mastic or special glue;
- establish new or removed fragments of rails;
- restore tiles.
Implementation of such a repair requires a lot of skills.
So, roof inspection conducted, the cause of damageclarified and corrected. In such cases, the main act quickly to prevent the spread of dampness in the apartment, spoiling the quality of life and general mood. Tenants should be aware that in order to avoid unpleasant situations with leaking, housing maintenance organizations are required to carry out every six months a scheduled inspection of the roof.