Construction of a private house is accompanied by aunderstanding in the whole "little things" system, each of which affects the future comfort. This time we will focus on thermal insulation of the roof. Of course, the easiest way to entrust all the work on the design and installation of insulation specialists. However, this does not prevent the owner of the knowledge of the basic rules and the opportunities are so much easier to detect errors builders in the early stages, when their correction is not yet moved into the category of "re-build". Besides insulation pitched roof it is not so difficult to understand, many craftsmen generally do with his own hands.
- Why do I insulate the roof?
- How to insulate a pitched roof - theory
- selection of materials
- Waterproofing, it - windscreen
- Insulation for pitched roofs
- Vapour control layer
Why do I insulate the roof?
People are not far from the buildingaware of the importance of roof insulation. However, insulation is really needed - and to reduce the cost of heating homes (to most of the heat did not go to the sky), and for the possibility of arrangement of attic living space, and to increase the longevity of the roof (that is, all the elements involved in its creation ). And if the heat loss through the roof and attic living in the comments do not need, it's about the impact of warming on the durability necessary to tell a little more detail. With "naked" non-insulated roof, we get this kind of situation:
- the roof is the outside air temperature, that is in the winter season from 0 to minus 20-30 degrees;
- in the house air is warm and humid, and the air tends upwards (the laws of physics known to all);
- met with a cold surface, it cools the air and condenses moisture out of it on the beams, rafters and other roofing materials.
Total have constantly moist surface of the roof,resulting in wood decay and corrosion of metal parts. What do you think - will serve as the roof in such conditions? So warm - necessarily!
How to insulate a pitched roof - theory
Proper insulation of roofs - is assembling so-called heat-insulating "cake" made of several layers performing different functions. The main elements of the "pie" are (from bottom up):
- the inner lining of the attic, the attic space
- air gap
- vapor barrier film
- again air gap
- vlagovetrozaschita with sufficient water vapor permeability
- and again the air gap
- external roofing materials
The general scheme is surprisingly simple, is not it? And almost anyone on the shoulder to make sure that the project adhere to the above.
selection of materials
The theory - the theory, but it's time to move on to the practice. And the first thing you need to find all the necessary materials, tracking not only the prices and quality, but also the compatibility of the elements. Consider the basic options for all three categories of materials: gidrobarer, insulation and vapor barrier.
Waterproofing, it - windscreen
Choosing material for waterproofing, it should be clearly understood how it must conform to the characteristics. So reliable gidrobarer should:
- retain water without letting it seep inside, to a heater;
- to pass from the inside out steam, which could pass through a layer of insulation;
- sufficient strength and flexibility for a long-term operation;
- maintain their properties over a wide temperature range (from about -40 to + 40 ° C) and upon exposure to ultraviolet and wind.
Worth more before you go to purchaseconsider in detail the various options for moisture protection, are available at the moment in the construction market. following (in ascending rates) are considered the most common:
- Roll - a dozen varieties of roofing material, fromwhich are increasingly popular Euro and Fiber-glass, since they can be easily sealed with the ability to dock zaplavit tight joints (seams);
- Film - many variations relating totwo categories: Polyethylene and polypropylene (which they often are called waterproofing), and in the second case, when laying need to closely monitor the correct orientation waterpermeability parties, but - bonus - in modern films at the edges are often already present double sided tape, which is convenient to attach the cloth ;
- diffusion membrane - "breathable" material, only moisture passing out.
All submissions are consistent with the above characteristics, well, plus or minus. So choose, based on the needs and wallet.
Note that when installing Gidrobarertightness is important - the material must encapsulate the rafters, and between them it should be fixed with a slight sagging (maximum bending - no more than 2 cm at the lowest point)
Insulation for pitched roofs
For insulation and give the necessary functionality. Qualitative insulating material should possess the following qualities:
- low thermal conductivity, and through which the heat is stored inside the house (the lower the figure, the thinner the layer of insulation is needed);
- the ability for a long time (ie before the end of service life) to keep the shape;
- optimum density - heavy insulation under its own weight quickly knead, losing their valuable qualities;
- resistance to temperature changes;
- fire safety;
- ecological - insulation must be chemically stable and biologically inert in the normal state and during heating;
- Long service life (while retaining all the useful features)
In principle, materials that meet all specifiedproperties, quite a lot, especially if you take into account the different brands. However, most often two categories of insulation used in the mansard roof insulation:
- mineral (basalt) cotton
And she and the other insulation available inrolls and plates, the width of which corresponds to the standard mezhstropilnomu Distance. Therefore, calculation and installation of insulation - the easiest step in the formation of the roof "pie".
It should be remembered that the laying of thermal insulationmaterials produced in such a way that between the supporting structure and insulation were no gaps - a perfect seal will prevent the formation of cold bridges
Vapour control layer
The requirements for vapor barrier, are very similar to those specified for Gidrobarer, except for one item. Vapour material must meet the following specifications:
- possible complete moisture and vapor permeability;
- high strength;
- sufficient flexibility;
- stability with an annual temperature variation.
Many people believe (and rightly so) that the usualthick polyethylene film in quality is consistent with the above list. Still, I want to expand a little information about the vapor barrier. So, modern science provides a good selection of membrane materials:
- with reflexive (reflective) layer - has a high thermal insulation of the steam and therefore most suitable for use in the attic apartment type (with living rooms, kitchen and bathroom)
- Limited water vapor permeability (coefficientvapor transmission (of Sd) in a range of 2-4 m) - is different diffusion capacity, which makes it possible to get rid of residual moisture in the rooms where there is a constant vaporization (ie where people live permanently)
- Variable vapor permeability - changethe ability to couple the transmission depending on the moisture (by Sd = 5 m in a dry state until Sd = 0.2 m wet), which do not allow the air gap between the membrane and inner lining attic space
Now you can choose the material that will best meet your desires it, so go for it.
It should be remembered that the steam (asmoisture protection) should be as airtight, so it is necessary to strengthen the material across the bearing elements close to a heater, and the cloth is necessary to impose on each other with a minimum overlap of 10 cm and prokleivat with the most convenient accessories - double-sided tape, glue or adhesive tape
As promised - nothing complicated. But now you can easily monitor the work of roofers, designers or even independently make installation of roof insulation. Successful construction of everyday life!