Insulation of flat roofs - the most important tasks, withwhich can be used to significantly reduce the heat loss and hence energy costs. In addition, the heat insulating layer prevents the condensate, allowing at times of maintenance-free operation to increase the life of the roof. But that's not all! Due to the insulated roof spaces, located directly underneath, creates a favorable microclimate.
- Types of insulation for flat roofs
- The device of flat roofs
- Installation of mineral wool boards on a flat roof
- Flooring vapor barrier
- Laying mineral wool
- What mineral wool is best used for flat roofs
- Insulation of flat roofs extruded polystyrene
- Laying the waterproofing layer
- Installation of EPS boards
- Construction of the separation layer
- Laying topcoat
Types of insulation for flat roofs
- mineral wool basalt-based (eg, TECHNOROOF TECHNOROOF 45 or 60 from "TechnoNikol"), which can be used without protective screed.
- extruded polystyrene (Foam) is ideal for the exploited roofs. It perfectly absorbs the sounds, but is flammable and is not recommended for thermal insulation of soft roofs.
- polyurethane foam - Great for roof insulation. Ideal to apply, non-flammable, does not form seams and gaps.
- ecowool - Insulation, made from cellulosetreated with flame retardants that make flammable material in a non-flammable. In shops and markets are looking at building brand Ecowool, Ecowooli Yunizol.
- foam concrete - A new material, which by its solidity andIt resembles concrete durability, and the structure and weight - foam. The perfect way to warm flat roof and at the same time create a heavy load on the supporting structures.
The device of flat roofs
So-called "cake" flat roof consists of the following layers:
- support base (concrete, metal profile)
- a heat insulating layer
The sequence of the layers can be different if the planned arrangement of stripping the roof. In this case, the "pie" will be as follows:
- support base
- waterproofing membrane
- a layer of geotextile or other material with similar characteristics
- gravel layer
As can be seen, the inversion roofing hardertraditional layer of insulation and it is located above the waterproofing layer. This option is suitable for the roof of the buildings, which have to meet high fire safety requirements. And even despite the fact that a layer of waterproofing on such roofs are usually made of combustible materials located underneath mineral wool, act as a barrier to fire. Thus, the roof structure is completely fireproof.
It is important that the device flat roof -Thermal insulation is meant, with allowance for the loads that can occur during operation. Thus, for example, exploited for roofing insulation layer must be thicker and stronger.
Installation of mineral wool boards on a flat roof
Flooring vapor barrier
The basis for the installation of basalt mineral woolplates are either reinforced concrete structures or shaped sheet metal. Regardless of which type of foundation has a house, first stacking produce vapor barrier layer which prevents the penetration of water vapor under the roof. If you skip this step, then eventually the mineral wool accumulates a moisture and stop playing the role of insulation, and laid it on top of a layer of waterproofing "will" blisters.
For flat roof vapor barrier is usually usedclassic or polyethylene, or special facing materials, such as bitumen and polimerbitum. The second option is more reliable and more efficient, because there is no such vapor barrier seams and it is very strong on the break.
Important: The vapor barrier must be placed not only on the horizontal surfaces, but also on the vertical. Plant film or bitumen should be just above the level where a heater will be located.
Laying mineral wool
Insulation for flat roofs, in this case,basalt slabs laid in a single layer, but sometimes, if it is required to make advance payment of thickness, builders can enhance insulation additional layer of more subtle, but no less solid mineral wool. Such a decision is taken on somehow, and based on the geographical location of the object, the average temperature and humidity parameters in the winter time, as well as the destination of the building.
To fix the plates to the ground using a telescoping dowels or bitumen.
The first option is more logical to use whenIt acts as the base steel sheet, since the mount plate to iron best mechanically. Besides fixing with dowels much cheaper, even if the mounting plate is made on the concrete. However, concrete anchors are slightly more expensive, and mess around with them longer.
In mechanical fastening method of mineralslabs waterproofing layer is fixed in the same way, that is, on the dowels. About the tightness of the roof in this case, you should not worry, as the broad hat dowels can not pierce the waterproofing.
Important: if you select a mechanical method of attachment of mineral wool, then a layer of a vapor barrier should be made of the deposited materials, because only in this case, the hole formed by hammering dowels into the ground, will be able to drag.
Bonding on bitumen - enough time-consuming andexpensive process and it is recommended when laying mineral wool on concrete base. Technology, in this case is as follows: at the base of the layer of bitumen is laid on top of it Plate. The procedure is repeated until the end of the roof. If there is a need for stacking the second insulation layer, the first layer of bitumen is greased and plates are mounted "in extensibility", that is so that the upper layer of boards overlapped joints a lower layer plates. On top of mineral wool on bitumen waterproofing fit.
What mineral wool is best used for flat roofs
Not every type of mineral wool is suitable forflat roof. It is important that the insulation had such strength that he could safely withstand the loads during operation, and the load at the time of installation, because builders will go on it. You can make a screed on insulation layer, which will distribute the load and create a rigid and solid base for waterproofing flooring. But whatever the screed - dry slate or asbestos or wet - it is in any case greatly increase the weight of the roof structure.
The way out of this situation can beHigh-strength mineral wool from TechnoNikol, which are made with the use of pre-press gofrirovschika-, depositing the fibers and in the horizontal and in vertical.
Insulation of flat roofs extruded polystyrene
Consider another option of warming the flat roof, which is used for thermal insulation of roofs inversion type.
Laying the waterproofing layer
The base of the inversion roofs should havesmall slope for water drainage and a smooth surface. To arrange this by using the concrete screed. It was on her, and laid waterproofing membrane of the deposited material. Installed it in the same way as in the case of a vapor barrier for a traditional roof, that is, with a stop on the vertical walls of the roof.
Installation of EPS boards
EPS boards are equipped with a slitcastles, but for the greatest protection against moisture penetration, all the joints of the building must be treated with adhesive tape. The process of laying polystyrene is very simple, the main thing to remember that the second layer (if it is necessary) must be installed in the Extension.
Construction of the separation layer
The next layer is a geotextile, whichIt will protect the lower layers of the roof from mechanical damage and contamination. Over geotextile performed ballast filling gravel or crushed stone thickness not less than 5 cm, and can be used for drainage profiled membrane laid between the geotextile and backfilling.
As can act as a finish coating andpaving slabs and asphalt concrete and foam concrete, and even lawn grass. In the latter case, the gravel is necessary to lay another layer of geotextile, and on top of it pour soil thickness of about 15-20 cm. Can be planted as a perennial herb and flower cultures.
Thermal insulation of flat roof - not an easy task,but by doing it on a solid top five, you can be confident that the building will be warm and comfortable. However, for greater reliability it is still warm and the walls.