Waterproofing of the basement with his own hands
Groundwater, capillary and rainwatererode the foundation, promote subsidence and deformation. So what does it take to not leave such a destructive processes no chance? It waterproofing, a very important stage of construction, will protect the residential and non-residential buildings by the accumulation of moisture, after the foundation was built - a support and the main support element structure. We can not say that this technology does not require any special knowledge and experience, but under certain rules, basement waterproofing with their hands is possible. At the same time, and money will be saved on the involvement of experts.
- The initial stage of the creation of a waterproofing system
- Types of basement waterproofing
- Classification of waterproofing protection by the method of application
- Waterproofing of monolithic slabs
- Protection against water for strip foundation
- Processing bitumen mastic
- Drawing the web material
- Sprayable waterproofing views
- Protection columnar and pile foundation
The initial stage of the creation of a waterproofing system
So, of course, that the devicewaterproofing must adhere to building codes and standards. Before answering the question: how to make waterproofing the basement, you need to choose the type of waterproofing and materials suitable in each case. Therefore, when choosing them you need to consider a number of specific conditions:
- ground water level;
- Heterogeneity of the soil;
- Frost heave force;
- Operating conditions for construction;
- Type of foundation.
Important: considering this process in terms of the consumption of materials and labor intensity - solid foundation for the most preferred, because it has no connecting seams that need filling with cement mortar.
Many people who waterproofing technologyfoundation or a stranger for the first time faced with such a process, contemplating whether or basement waterproofing needs you can still do a blind area? The answer is only one, waterproofing is needed, because the foundation must be protected from surface water, in the form of precipitation and groundwater, that is groundwater.
Blind area protects the foundation from the harmfulpenetration and negative impacts of surface water. So, before the waterproofing should think about how to divert water from the basement. To do this, construct the blind area, and in particularly problematic cases, it may be necessary and the drainage system.
Types of basement waterproofing
There are several types of waterproofing:
- Horizontal - the protection of the walls of the capillaryabsorbed. Basically, the gist of it is that two independent systems are arranged horizontal type of waterproofing. The first - under the ceiling of the basement, and the second on top of base plates in the walls of the support points;
- Vertical - it is located in an area thatIt begins at the foot of the foundation structure, and ends rainwater ingress level (splash). Technology such waterproofing should be calculated at the beginning of construction, at a backfilling the excavation. Namely, it is necessary to take into account the thickness of the layer of soil, the installation-specific protection in the form of asbestos cement sheets, polystyrene plates.
Classification of waterproofing protection by the method of application
Depending on the application method, distinguish waterproofing okleechnuyu, obmazochnuyu, plaster and mountable.
Lining hydraulic seals, in fact, it consists ofliquid-tight multi-layer membrane, density up to 5 mm, as well as polymer-bitumen films (self-adhesive). In use roofing felt, asphalt, roofing such as waterproofing. It is used for protection of concrete, reinforced concrete and brick structures. Apply it easy, you just need to heat the material gas burner, then firmly pressed against the wall, and then smooth roller. This type of waterproofing copes with the appearance of cracks and moisture, but there is one drawback - the need more pressing wall or screed.
Of the membranes up to 3 mm is arrangedsurface waterproofing. The best materials, in terms of ease of use and affordable price - bitumen and bituminous component. They have been applied a paint float, putty knife or use a spray. Since the bitumen becomes brittle at temperatures around zero and loses its elasticity, the life of such material is limited to 6-7 years. Yes, and work with them should be hot.
Also today there are many varietiessynthetic resins, polymers. For example, bitumen-polymer and bitumen-rubber mastic. They are applied in the cold state, a fact greatly simplifies the sealing process. Another example is surface waterproofing cement-polymer pastes, they are composed of dry cement, with the addition of a mineral filler. Cement component provides good adhesion to the foundation, and the main task of plasticizing additives - used in places that are exposed to strains and vibration.
Plastering waterproofing is appliedseveral layers of the solution to 2.2 cm thick. In this case, a mineral mortar, which comprises additives that increase moisture resistance, polymer concrete and asphalt mastic. This type of waterproofing to protect the foundation of the great wicking, but also there is the possibility of cracking, so it should only be applied hot way.
Creating a protective shield - the principle mountedwaterproofing. Compacted clay, which should be laid layer of 40-50 cm is the most affordable and widely used material for this type of waterproofing. Also used bentonite clay, which serves as a protective shield, a layer thickness of 1-2 cm. Between the sheets of cardboard or geotextile placed a layer of bentonite. In the operation of a cardboard shell breaks, and the foundation surface is surrounded by clay. Produced clay such as insulating panels or mats.
Another excellent protective screens can be calledpolymeric geomembranes. This screen consists of a profiled membrane and filter fabrics. Rounded studs create drainage channels through which water enters the drainage system, and textiles provides full functionality, as it protects the system from silting. Advantages of these membranes:
- Neutral to aggressive media;
- Soil resistance to motion and deformation of the structure.
But there are some disadvantages such waterproofing when ground water rises above the level of the outlet pipe, the drainage screens and cease to function.
Waterproofing basement also depends on the type of foundation.
Waterproofing of monolithic slabs
This type of foundation is preferredseal the rolled roofing material, which is placed on the base plate. Over roofing insulation falls as insulation and waterproofing of the foundation - an important component of any construction. Then, a heater is covering, and already it is laid a floor covering.
Important: if the plate surface is uneven, it is necessary to make the leveling screed.
Protection against water for strip foundation
How to make waterproofing the foundation belt type? This foundation waterproofing in several ways:
Processing bitumen mastic
Bitumen mastic - the most economical option. It is suitable in such cases: for high-quality protection against capillary rise of groundwater and surface water from penetrating. But not protect against pressure water coating, because they do not stand a set of more than 2 m. Apply it on a flat surface, pre-dried.
Important: this waterproofing needs to be protected from the damage of mechanical type, which usually happens when backfilling the excavation, since it contains construction waste.
As protection suit:
- Rolled geotextiles;
-prizhimnaya wall of brick;
- Insulation Epps.
Drawing the web material
Roofing material - material is a bit more expensive than a coating. But it is more robust and durable. The foundation is treated with hot bitumen mastic, which is pasted layer 2 (minimum) roofing panels, always with overlap of 10-20 cm.
Sprayable waterproofing views
Quick and easy application of this happeningwaterproofing due to the use of a special spray. This is a more expensive material, which needs reinforcing material is thermally bonded geotextile.
Cost-effective use of this method of waterproofing for the foundations of complex configuration or if the foundation is laid very close to other facilities.
Protection columnar and pile foundation
Poles and piles gidroizolirovat extremely difficult. This process takes a lot of time and effort. Therefore, piles and poles desirable to make of waterproof concrete. But the wooden piles have to handle anti-corrosion solution.
Thus, it is possible to come to the correct conclusion,that high-quality waterproofing is a guarantee that the construction project, namely the foundation will not be exposed to the harmful effects of atmospheric precipitation and groundwater. Just all the features of the building structure should be taken into account and properly carry out the process.