The foundation of reinforced concrete
The construction of any house begins with a tabfoundation. It is important to choose the type of foundation considering soil density, the degree of freezing and the proximity of groundwater. The most common in our climatic conditions, the foundation - reinforced concrete or precast concrete. Even if construction is under way on the heaving soils it is sufficient to calculate the width of the trench properly and provide backfill of nepuchinistogo grunta.Pomnite that the decision on the choice of the type of foundation should take an experienced architect who can take into account all the characteristics of soil and climate, as well as to calculate the design load.
- Markup features trench
- Precast reinforced concrete foundation
- Belt type monolithic foundation
Markup features trench
When the calculations are ready and it's time to startaction, it is first necessary to produce the correct markup portion. Places, which will host the trench for the foundation is most convenient to mark small scraps of armature driven into the ground 10-15 cm Of course, counting is conducted in accordance with the technical documentation, but there are a few tricks that will help you avoid mistakes.:
- Using pegs and strong thread markfoundation perimeter, measuring out the distances long tape measure. If your available no roulette desired length, use the same thread. It is important that the thread is not stretched, or errors in the markup can not be avoided.
- After marking again vymeryat lengthsides - parallel sides should be the same. Be sure to measure diagonally - they must be equal. Otherwise, your foundation will have indirect angles.
- The width of the trench should be at 40-60 cm morethe width of the foundation design. Additional 20-30 cm on each side are required to install the formwork and construction of protective drainage backfill. By the foundation of the depth specified in the project, you must add 20 cm for drainage "cushion" of crushed stone and sand. If done correctly, you can start digging trenches.
Dig a trench under the concrete foundation can be like using an excavator, or manually.
Of course, the use of technology will speed up the process, but also "handmade" has its advantages:
- The smaller the amount of excavated soil
- More smooth trench;
- Concrete savings (by pouring without formwork) - manual easier to adjust the width of the trench, and, consequently, the volume of concrete used.
At a distance of about 30 cm from the bottom of the trenchyou must do a little expansion - "heel." This will increase the area of support and distribute the load. At the bottom of the trench is placed a layer of sand or fine gravel and abundantly watered for the shrinkage.
Precast reinforced concrete foundation
If your project prefab houses providedreinforced concrete foundation, it is possible to start laying. Unfortunately, we can not do without the use of lifting machine (crane). The optimal number of workers in this case, 4 persons: crane operator, worker and two installer.
The work begins with the corner of the building. "Bed" from the spread solution immediately prior to installation of each unit, with the help of a crane placed the unit and check the correctness of its position along the axes by means of the level and plumb. Then stack the next block. Permissible vertical clearance between the blocks - 15 mm. After installation, it is poured with concrete blocks, and sometimes in order to improve waterproofing pre zakonopachivayut.
Precast foundation in low-riseconstruction are rarely used. The fact that a relatively small load on the foundation, the bearing capacity of the blocks is used only 10-15%, but the cost of the foundation precast Bookmarks significantly higher price than the filling belt.
Belt type monolithic foundation
If the project provides a monolithic reinforced concrete strip foundation, should begin with the reinforcement cage device.
Primarily produce so-called"Ring" of fittings 8mm thick. To do this, a small piece of sill need to rigidly fix and make its two edges of the groove (grinder). In these grooves insert fittings 8mm thick, on the other end put on large-diameter pipes and get some sort of lever. In this way, you can quite easily produce identical rectangles. This will be our "ring".
Ready rings associate knitting with wire and start manufacturing the frame.
For this reinforcement piece 4, 12 mm thick andlength equal to the length of the side of the house, using binding wire passes through the "ring" and tie the corners. Fifth tie rod in the middle of the upper face of the rectangle.
Note that if you tie a few pieces of rebar, for the required length, the overlap should be at least 1 m.
Thereby preparing for the entire framebasement, lower it into the trench, laying the bricks at a distance of about 10 cm from the bottom, and sealed at the corners of binding wire. Then, trying to drive into the walls of the trench pins and tie them frame.
Important! The framework must be laid strictly on the level.
Around the same principle is madeanother foundation - monolithic reinforced concrete slab, but in this case located in the pit fill the entire area of the house. Such a foundation is often the basement floor.
As you can see, to build the foundation for the house or the garage with his hands is not so difficult, most importantly the desire to make some effort and all the necessary work.