Technological scheme of reinforcement and reinforcement calculation
Reinforcement of the foundation - a process necessary for thestrengthening the design and increase the lifetime of the building. In other words, it is the assembly of the "skeleton", which acts as a protective component of the deterrent soil pressure on the base wall. But in order for this feature has been implemented to the maximum extent, it is necessary not only to competently produce reinforcement calculation for strip foundation, but also know how to organize the course of construction works.
- As reinforced strip foundation
- The circuit construction of the reinforcing structure
- Calculation of material consumption
As reinforced strip foundation
Basis of belt type foundation - concreteA solution consisting of cement, sand and water. Unfortunately, the physical characteristics of the building materials do not guarantee the absence of deformation of the building foundations. To increase the ability to withstand the shifts of the foundation, temperature, and other negative factors, it is necessary the presence of the metal structure.
This material is plastic, but it provides a secure fit, so reinforcement - a significant step in the complex.
Reinforcing foundation is required in places wherethere may be tension zone. It is noted that the greatest tension occurs at the surface of the base, which creates prerequisites for reinforcement, approximate to the upper level. On the other hand, in order to prevent corrosion of the frame, it must be protected from external influences concrete layer.
Important! The optimal distance for the foundation fittings - 5 cm from the surface.
Since the promotion of deformation to predictimpossible stretching zones may occur in the bottom (when the middle bend down) and at the top (when the frame is curved upward). Accordingly, the reinforcement must pass the top and bottom valves 10-12 mm in diameter, and this belt reinforcement for the base should have a ribbed surface.
This achieves a perfect contact with the concrete.
The remaining part of the skeleton (horizontal and vertical transverse rods) can have a smooth surface and a smaller diameter.
When monolithic reinforcement strip foundation, which is typically less than the width of 40 cm, allowed to use 4-reinforcement rods (10-16 m) connected to the frame 8 mm.
Important! The distance between the horizontal bars (with a width of 40 cm) - 30 cm.
Strip foundation has, at great length,narrow width, so it will appear in the longitudinal stretching, while the cross does not. From this it follows that the vertical and horizontal cross bars which are smooth and thin, only need to create a frame, and not for taking loads.
Particular attention should be paid to the reinforcementangles: there are cases when the deformation is necessary not to the middle, and at the corner portions. Angles should be reinforced so that one end of the valve element bent in a left wall, and the other - to the other.
experts advise to connect the bars with the help ofwire. After all, not every sort of reinforcement made from steel, which can be welded. But even if the admissibility of the welding often have problems that can be avoided by using a wire, for example, overheating of steel, lead to a change in the properties, the thinning of the rod at the weld, inadequate weld strength, etc.
The circuit construction of the reinforcing structure
Reinforcement begins with the installation of the formwork, the inner surface of which is laid out with parchment, allowing easier removal in the future design. Building a frame made under the scheme:
1. The trenches driven into the ground reinforcing rods equal to the depth of foundation length. Observe distance from the formwork of 50 mm and a pitch of 400-600 mm.
2. At the bottom of the installed base (80-100 mm), which are necessary to lay the bottom row of 2-3 thread fittings. As stands quite amiss bricks set on edge.
3. The upper and lower range of the valve is fixed with transverse webs to the vertical rods.
4. The intersection produces fastening using wire link or welding.
Important! Should strictly abide by the distance to the outer surfaces of the base of the future. Do it better with bricks. This is one of the most important conditions because metal structures should not be based directly on the bottom. They must be raised above ground level for at least 8 cm.
After installation, the valve is to make ventilation holes and pour concrete solution.
This need to know!
Vents not only contribute to the damping characteristics of the foundation, but also to prevent the occurrence of putrefaction.
Calculation of material consumption
To calculate the product strip foundationyou need to know in advance some of the parameters. Consider an example. Suppose, our foundation has a rectangular shape and the following dimensions: width - 3.5 meters, length - 10 meters, casting height - 0.2 m, width of the belt - 0.18.
First of all, you want to calculate the total volumecasting, which you need to know the size of the base as if he was in the form box. To do this, we make a few simple manipulations: learn the base perimeter, and then multiply the perimeter of the width and height of the casting.
P = AB + BC + CD + AD = 3.5 + 3.5 = 10 + 10 = 27
V = 27 x 0.18 = 0.2 x 0 972
But this calculation is not a monolithic foundationends. We learned that the base itself, or rather cast, rounded occupies a volume equal to 0.97 m3. Now you need to know the volume of the inside of the base, ie, that is within our tape.
Get the amount of "stuffing": multiply the width and length of the base casting on the height and know the total amount of:
10 x 3.5 x 0.2 = 7 (cubic meters)
Subtract the volume of the casting:
7 - 0.97 = 6.03 m3
Bottom line: the volume of the casting - 0.97 m3, the internal volume of the filler - 6.03 m3.
Now we need to calculate the number of fittings. Suppose the diameter will be 12 mm in the casting - two horizontal threads, ie Rod 2, and vertically, for example, rods are placed every two feet. Perimeter known - 27 meters. So, 27 is multiplied by 2 (horizontal bars) and get 54 meters.
Vertical bars: 54/2 + 2 = 110 rods (108 intervals of 0.5 m and two on the edges). We add one more rod at an angle and get 114 bars.
. For example, the rod height - 70 cm turns: 114 x 0.7 = 79.8 meters.
The final touch - formwork. Suppose, we build it from the board is 2.5 cm thick and 6 meters long and 20 cm wide.
We calculate the area of the side surfaces of: the perimeter multiplied by the height of the casting, and then by 2 (with a margin, taking into account not decrease against the inner perimeter of the outer): (27 x 0.2) x 2 = 10.8 m2
The area of the board: 6 x 0.2 = 1.2 m2; 10.8 / 1.2 = 9
We have 9 boards 6 m long. Do not forget to add the board to connect (at your discretion).
Result: 1 m3 of concrete is required; 6.5 m3 of aggregate; Valves 134 meters and 27 meters of the boards (20 cm wide) bars and screws. The values are rounded.
Now you know not only how toreinforced strip foundation, but also how to calculate the required components. This means that the base built by you, will be a reliable and strong, permitting the construction of monolithic structures of any configuration.