Strip foundation with his own hands
All the people, for sure, are familiar with the concept of"The underground part of the construction," that is the foundation that takes the load and transmits it to the base. The foundation is of several types, including continuous footing with their hands is very popular in the private structure, because its construction costs are quite reasonable, and the technique of simple. The device strip foundation - the process is fairly simple, most importantly, to explore some technological features. This type of foundation is expedient to lay the chalk with the process of laying the dry soil nepuchinistyh, and if the soil at the site deep freeze, the construction of strip foundation is more expensive because of the large volume of earthworks.
- Strip foundation - use
- The service life of a belt-type foundation.
- The types of structures used in building construction.
- Types of strip foundation.
- Building materials for the construction of strip foundation.
- Construction technology belt type foundation
- Preliminary work - cleaning, markings.
- Trench - development to form.
- Construction of formwork, its varieties.
- Installation of the valve - bearing structural elements.
- Pouring concrete.
- Waterproofing basement.
- Backfill - shutdown.
- Possible errors and their consequences
What is a type of beltfoundation? This particular strip of concrete that runs around the perimeter of the house. This tape is laid under external and internal walls of buildings, but the section of the form must be the same along the entire perimeter.
Strip foundation - use
- for buildings with heavy beams used monolithic, made of reinforced concrete and metal types of strip foundation;
- for structures with brick, concrete and stone walls - density> 1000-1300 kg / m³;
- when heterogeneity of soil, if there is a riskuneven foundation settlement. Then tape the foundation acts as a unitary structure, which redistributes the efforts and thus walls of the house will not be deformed and cracks will not be;
- in homes with a basement or a basement wall of this type form the foundation wall of the basement.
Choosing the type of foundation - the crucial moment,because it is an important structural element of the whole building. If at the beginning of the construction of the error will be laid down, that is the foundation planned to be incorrect, or building material is spared, then without serious consequences if not do.
It may happen foundation warp, horizontal or vertical deformation, precipitation and crack in the supporting structure. The reliability of the foundation - a guarantee solidity and durability of the structure.
The service life of the belt type foundation
This figure depends on the used building materials:
- rubble in cement mortar and monolithic concrete - up to 150 years;
- precast concrete ribbons - 50-75 years;
- brick strip foundation - 30-50 years
The types of structures used in construction of buildings
Depending on design features, strip foundations are divided into:
- monolithic, that is made on the construction site;
- prefabricated, made of reinforced concrete slabs, which are manufactured in a factory and assembled on the construction site with a crane.
Types of strip foundation
The choice of foundation or melkozaglublennogorecessed depends on the load. Melkozaglublenny strip foundation with his own hands is best suited for lightweight constructions: wooden houses, foam concrete and frame, as well as the small brick. He gets a slabopuchinistyh soil, its depth is about 50-70 cm.
At the same time, for structures with solidceilings and walls, recessed strip foundation is used mainly on heaving soils. In addition, this type of foundation is needed in the planning of the house basement or garage. Its construction requires a greater depth of material and cost it at 20-30 cm below the freezing ground. Under the walls of the smallest possible depth of the inside of the building - 40-60 cm.
Building materials for the construction of strip foundation
- Rubble concrete foundation - sand-cement mixwith the addition of large stones. This is a fairly solid foundation, width - 200 mm - 1000 mm. His device requires the creation of a sand or gravel pillows, not less than 100 mm, for leveling the ground and laying a mixture of convenience.
- Strip foundation of brick is used forabove- and underground part of the foundation for the basement parts. But in its construction must be remembered: the brick material is hygroscopic and wet breaks even minor frosts, so it needs to be waterproof. Brick kind of strip foundation is suitable for houses with walls in one - one and a half brick or wooden frame.
- Reinforced concrete strip foundation - a mixture of sand,gravel, cement, reinforced with reinforcement bars and metal mesh. It is the most common material, because it is quite cheap, durable and makes it possible to create a monolithic structures most complex configurations. If sandy land, it is an excellent choice of material.
- foundation blocks and boards - durable, reliable, they are suitable for almost all types of buildings and all types of soil.
Construction technology belt type foundation
Important: the choice of workers - a crucial moment that should not be ignored, because the human factor in the construction occupies a significant position
Melkozaglublenny strip foundation involves the use of building materials such as concrete and rubble concrete.
Construction of strip foundation with his own hands, it melkozaglublennogo, consists of the basic steps:
Preliminary work - clearing, marking
This clearing of the site and delivery of all necessary materials. On the ground are marked axis of the house, as well as fixed with stakes and string arrangement of the basic elements of the future foundation.
This operation must be carried out accurately andcarefully need to check the angles which must necessarily be 90 degrees, and yet to be verified mark trench bottom (in the corners and at the intersection points). Aligns the area for construction must be greater than the size of the house (in each direction> 2-5 m).
Trench - development to form
The trench dug manually or excavator. In the latter case, the bottom of the trench must be cleaned up and aligned manually. Next shielded pit, and at the bottom of the trench is placed cushion (120-200 mm) of fine gravel or sand. She watered and well compacted. On this cushion fit plastic film, as waterproofing material, or whether it is filled with cement mortar to prevent water left in the ground and not deteriorated strength cushion characteristics.
Construction of formwork, its varieties
Formwork for this foundation is made ofboards (single-sided planed) thickness not less than 40-50 mm. And also widely applicable Panelboard collapsible formwork (steel). Installed formwork spacers firmly fixed to the walls of the trench. It is extremely important to carefully align the plumb vertical wall, because the accuracy of this index depends on the period of operation of the foundation. And do not forget the holes for sewerage system and aqueduct.
Installation of the valve - bearing structural elements
Along with the arrangement of the formwork is doneand valve assembly, in the assembled frames. The number of twigs, their location and the diameter specified in the project. In general, the frame consists of two vertical bands of reinforcement, horizontal rods fastened. How much will these twigs, depends on the depth of the foundation.
Important: it is necessary to remember that the concrete mix by pouring from a height of more than 1.5 m, exposed to the bundle. Therefore, it is desirable to use a portable chute
At this stage the concrete is poured in graduallyformwork in layers of 15-20 cm thick. Thus, each compacted layer to not voids were formed. Also for this purpose rattles shuttering wall. Important - concrete solution should be tough but not liquid.
Waterproofing of the basement
After 7-10 days after casting shuttering is removed. For basement waterproofing used asphalt mastic, its are coatedouter walls and pasted waterproofing material. A remarkable material for waterproofing roofing material there. After a while, checked the quality of gluing, ie, if waterproofing is peeled from the basement walls.
Backfill - Shutdown
At this stage of construction should be performedBackfill foundation of the sinuses (sand medium size). His ram layers and fill with water. Thus it is necessary to monitor the state of waterproofing, so that it remains intact.
Possible errors and their consequences
- Do not take into account the properties of the soil, is not determined the groundwater level and depth of freezing - a crack and sediment.
- The poor quality materials and poor performance of the entire spectrum of work - poor quality and short-lived foundation.
It goes without saying that such errors beshould not. Therefore, the approach to the construction of strip foundation is to be meaningful and reasonable. After the construction of the house - a large-scale work, so at the first stage, as well as on all others, should not be mistakes and errors in the calculation and construction processes.