The basis of any building - the foundation on whichIt depends on the strength and reliability of the design. That is why the choice of a basis for future home must be approached with the utmost care. One of the most popular types is considered to be the basis pier foundation, which has found wide use in the construction of a country. The grounds have a view on the pillars of support, arranged under columns and walls. Purpose of the foundation is to overlap core pillars of concrete or rubble concrete beams on which the tower wall. To avoid crashes and deformations of the beams under the framework set slag or sandy base. Its width should be greater than the width of the base. It should also worry about waterproofing. Racks to the foundation of this type are preferred rectangular or ravnostupenchatoy form.
- Preconditions and restrictions for the use of columnar foundation
- What is the calculation of the columnar foundation
- Materials for the pier foundation
- How to make a pier foundation with his own hands
- The most common errors in the tab
- A bit of useful information
Many are convinced that the columnar andmusculo-pier foundation - different concepts that have little in common. This is not true. The first as well as second, erected a wooden houses without basements. It is the most convenient and easy to install form of foundations, which are often used in the construction of log houses, change houses, baths.
Such a framework for the flow of construction materials and laborforce twice more economical tape. Often, when construction of the supporting-pier foundation concrete blocks ready to use. The support consists of 4 blocks in size 200h200h400 mm. The number of these "cabinets" depends on the dimensions of the house.
Preconditions and restrictions for the use of columnar foundation
There are a number of conditions, when the use of the basement on the pillars not only appropriate, but also fully justified:
- when the ground during operation of the columnar structure provides subsidence base (at the same pressure Pillars in the ground) is somewhat smaller than the tape;
- for buildings without basements with boards, wood-frame walls and light;
- a wall of bricks that require deep foundations (up to 2 meters, that is 25 cm below the freezing depth of soil);
- when it is necessary to eliminate the negative impact of buildings on the basis of radiation frost, because pier foundation is exposed to this phenomenon to a lesser extent.
There are a few moments when it is not recommended to use the pier foundation:
- in weak and horizontally moving soil, because the foundation on different pillars of insufficient stability;
- on soft soils (clay, water-saturated, subsiding rocks), in the construction of buildings with massive walls, heavy (brick and concrete blocks thickness of more than 510 mm);
- it is not necessary to arrange pier foundation in the ground with a height difference (between 2.0 m and more).
What is the calculation of the columnar foundation
At the stage of designing the house the most important taskIt is the calculation of the columnar foundations. The goal - definition of load that will impact on the ground and the foundation, and the identification of the supporting base area.
The total load - it is a constant pressure(Home) and temporary (wind, snow). To find out the load on the foundation should consider the weight of the house with the operational additions in the form of furniture, technical equipment, the people living in it.
When calculating the pier foundation is determined by the area and severity of the support. The results are extremely important to understand whether the ground is able to support the weight of the house and basement.
To calculate the needed data:
- Number of floors in the building;
- Height of the building;
- The total length of the jumper P1 P2;
- Base size;
- The thickness of the cap;
- Soil density;
- The depth of laying the foundation;
- The type of soil;
- Material for the walls and base;
- View of the roof;
- The type of overlap.
Materials for the pier foundation
Columnar foundation may be made of wood, brick, concrete.
To bookmark a wooden base is usedbottom of the barrel - butt. Before installing the support treated with an antiseptic solution and wrapped in bitumen. These measures will prevent rotting of wood and prolong service life. For example, a support made of pine wood (after processing) will last about 15 years, from the oak - 30. For comparison, untreated poles will serve faithfully for 15 and 7 years respectively.
The foundation of brick will last 70 to 100 years depending on the soil structure, masonry and quality material.
Important! If you want to make the foundation of brick, masonry skills but do not have, it is better to entrust this work to professionals, because the poor performance of the work leads to the rapid destruction of the towers.
The foundation of concrete has high strength and the longest service life - 150 years.
How to make a pier foundation with his own hands
The device combines a base on polesat the same time the simplicity and elegance. This type of foundations is presented in the form of low pillars - pillars, which are located in the busy spots. These points are the building corners, and the junction of the external load-bearing walls. On top of the poles grillage set - plate, evenly distributes the load for construction poles. This approach is somewhat similar to the use of piles.
Pier foundation can be made of differentmaterials: concrete, stone, rubble concrete, brick, but the most common is a reinforced concrete foundation that is practical and easy to tab.
Consider the stages of columnar foundation of the device in the most sought after version (reinforced concrete). The sequence works as follows:
1. Cleaning construction site. Conduct, depending on soil type, appropriate training. At high bearing capacity of soil is necessary to align the site with the help of special equipment. If the ground is not a reliable call (sandy loam, clay plastic, quicksand) need replacing primer, namely, excavation and backfilling of artificial soil in it.
2. The structure of the drawing is transferred to the site, which are mounted rack castoffs, hammered stakes and stretched thread - axis, indicated in the diagrams.
3. Regular digging holes strictly along the axes. If they are deeper than a meter, in order to avoid shedding need to use the slopes. At the bottom is placed a large sand and gravel.
4. Set formwork, which will serve as a form for pouring concrete. In some cases, permitting the soil, it can be dispensed with.
5. Installation fittings - steel rods, captured by the clamp circuit with a cross section not less than 12 cm.
6. Pouring concrete into several layers of 30 cm.
7. At the top of the pillars set team or monolithic edge beam - grillage. As a result, we obtain the circuit, which is very similar to a strip foundation has just raised on pillars.
8. Between the pillars erected boundary wall, preventing the penetration of dust and moisture into the ground outside the structure.
9. Produced via basement waterproofing bitumen layer applied on top of the pillars.
The most common errors in the tab
Laying the pier foundation by the hands, developers often make mistakes that lead to damage to the foundation and walls of the house. Here are the most common ones:
- Uneven subsidence of the foundation. This may occur due to an incorrect calculation of the depth of bookmarks, different size reference recessed or uneven load on the base support. To eliminate this phenomenon should produce the most accurate estimates of planned load distribution.
- The use of low-quality material: sand with an admixture of clay or cement is not that brand. Note that the long-term storage quality of the cement is decreased by 30% or even 50%.
- Incorrect evaluation primer bearing properties. Avoid this helps competently executed project specialists.
A bit of useful information
Foundation works are carried out to the fullestdeadlines and in the dry period. The soil should be dry, if water is in the trench, it is necessary to remove it and compacted soil. Allowed to seal it with gravel, slag or fine stone.
When erecting columnar foundation for everyof the supports removed a layer of fertile soil. Poles installed on carefully compacted soil. If heaving soil structure at the base of the pillars of the cushion to be produced Gravel (150 mm). The height of the supporting pillars above the ground shall be not less than 100 mm.
Pier foundation - the perfect choice forreliable foundation. Accessibility, efficiency, ease of laying - qualities that led to the popularity of this type of foundation. The design, in spite of the ease out very strong and will last more than one year.