How to make a pile foundation with his own hands
Selection and installation of foundations in low-riseConstruction is of paramount importance. After all, the strength and reliability of the design of the foundation depends on the quality of construction of the object. It is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the soil, the number of storeys of the building erected, as well as the financial capacity of the site owner. Pile foundation is indispensable in the soft ground, because it requires a building to transfer the pressure on the more dense layer, which lies at a certain depth. The device is most effective pile foundation in heaving soils, prone to deep freezing, more than 1.5 meters. In this case the foundation piles of reliable columnar or belt structure. However, in dense soils nobody forbids to use pile.
- Advantages of pile foundation
- Construction of pile foundations
- Selection of piles for cottage construction
- Bored piles with a raft
- Prefabricated and monolithic grillage
Advantages of pile foundation
- Reducing the amount held by excavation, which is very important when erected pile the foundation of their own hands. If there is no basement in the project.
- Reducing the flow of concrete.
- Minimizing the complexity of work.
- Reducing the cost of construction.
- Save time.
Construction of pile foundations
In construction there are different types of construction of pile foundations, which are influenced by factors such as:
- Select the type of piles;
- The circuit arrangement of the piles under the building;
- A method of manufacturing piles and immersing them into the ground;
- Construction of the grillage;
- The nature of work in the pile of soil thickness.
In the industrial building constructionpile foundation is done by a large number of construction machinery, which is excluded when working with their hands. Therefore, in a holiday cottage and low-rise buildings are not used all kinds of pile foundations. For example, screw piles, shaped drills, without the aid of special equipment in the ground can not be tighten.
Therefore, to fulfill the foundation screw pile with their hands is difficult. We'll have to rent a special vehicle, and it will affect the financial side of things. That means we need to pay attention to other structures.
Selection of piles for cottage construction
Long rods submerged in the ground in thefabricated or manufactured directly in the ground, called piles. Finished products are sharpened on one hand, it facilitates the immersion of the pile into the ground until a hard soil layer. This requires the use of specialized equipment.
When making piles in the ground with their handsis drilled, and are then poured reinforced concrete. For low-rise building pile length should be at least three meters, but no more than six. A more accurate calculation should be entrusted to the designer. From the manner in which conducted penetration of the pile into the ground, are distinguished:
- Driven piles that do not require pre-excavation immersion. It is envisaged the use of special mechanisms - vibrators, vibrovdavlivayuschih and pinch devices;
- Printed Concrete and reinforced concrete piles, which are obtained by pouring concrete in the pre-drilled hole;
- Drilling reinforced concrete piles which are installed in the drilled hole;
- Screw piles, twisted like a drill into the ground with the help of special machines.
By the nature of the work piles of soil thickness distinguish pile-stand and hanging piles. The first reach a solid layer of soil, and the second - is not based on the geological features of its occurrence.
Bored piles with a raft
Building a pile-strip foundation with his own hands, you need to stock up on garden brown or brown TISE, which costs about $ 70.
In addition this will require other tools that, as a rule, the builder is always at hand.
Stages of work:
- Performed foundation contour markings.
- Removed topsoil and soil from the trench to a depth equal to the thickness of the raft foundation. Running formwork.
- Along the perimeter of the foundation of the future through designevery two meters made pits using a garden drill, having a cross-section size of 120-150 mm. The depth of the pit should be below the freezing point of the soil, and its minimum value is equal to 1500 mm. The bottom hole is expanded to a diameter of 350 mm, a height of 300 mm. Next is filled with five-centimeter layer of sand and compacted.
- The sheath is inserted into the resulting hole fromtar paper or glassine paper at an estimated thickness of the pile prior to the expansion and reinforcement cage, and everything is filled with concrete, which is ready to acquire better. You can prepare a solution, and with their hands, keeping the aspect ratio. For the manufacture of concrete cube you need to take 289 kg of cement grade 400, 562 kg of sand, gravel 1375 kg. The amount of water should not exceed 70% of the weight of cement.
- Concrete poured into the pile hole, you mustcompacted using vibrators. In its absence, the course is an ordinary wooden tamper, the diameter of which must be less than the reinforcing cage.
- Three hours after setting openconcrete surface, as well as grillage formwork, poured water. For the gradual hardening of concrete it is necessary to close the plastic wrap. After 14-28 days of pile foundation is ready, you can proceed to the next stage of construction.
Prefabricated and monolithic grillage
The upper part of the pile foundation, calledgrillage, assume the main burden constructed elements of the building, passing it to the piles, which, in turn, share it with soil. The low-rise building is used as a pile rostverkovy foundation and pile foundation grillage without. Rostwerk may be monolithic or modular. Pile foundations with monolithic grillage avoids the presence of joints and seams, which are inevitable in a modular design. Recently, however, exactly prefabricated gratings are widespread, and the need to comply with millimeter pile location.
As you can see, with the pile foundation grillagedifficult to build. However, properly executed design does not allow the building prosest. Some pile foundations, made in the last century Russian masters, are still firmly hold objects erected on them.