How to make a foundation for a house with his own hands
Building a house is a fairlya complex, time-consuming and responsible process. The process of construction of a residential building involves several stages, one of which is mounted to the foundation of the house. This stage is one of the key as well as the quality of laying the foundation determines the durability of construction, the protection of it from a variety of internal and external factors, the degree of security. Competent approach to the device foundation to avoid many mistakes. In addition, it should take into account the fact that the experts distinguish several types of foundations, each of which has its own characteristics and is suitable for a particular soil type structure. Depending on the design features adopted to allocate tape, pile, slab and pier foundation. And now - a little bit about each of them.
- Strip foundation - an option for homes with basement
- Pile foundation for the construction of a house on soft ground
- Solid floor - universal secure foundation
- Pier foundation - the budget choice
- General recommendations on how to lay the foundation for the house
- The main stages of laying the foundation of the example of a band structure of the device
Strip foundation - an option for homes with basement
Strip foundation is ideal whenconstruction of residential buildings with heavy walls and floor slabs. That is why it is located around the outer perimeter walls and other areas with a high degree of loading. In addition, the presence of an underground garage, cellar or basement is another argument in favor of a continuous footing. In a sufficiently general form of this type of foundation is a tape, buried in the ground. They transferred all load bearing elements of the house: columns, walls. Supports for tapes are baseplates so-called distributive cushion. This design allows you to evenly and over a larger area to distribute the load on the existing ground. Strip foundations are divided into types according to different criteria. So, they are divided on execution:
- National. They are arranged from the concrete blocks, which are mounted directly on the construction site with a crane.
- Monolithic. Such foundations initially laid on the construction site.
Depending on the material used is customary to distinguish:
- The brick strip foundations, carried out from a clay solid bricks.
- Rubble concrete. For their bookmarks used concrete with a large vehicle, which is used as coarse gravel and small boulders.
- Concrete strip foundations that require concrete class B15-B30 and fittings.
Pile foundation for the construction of a house on soft ground
This type of foundation is suitable for soils,characterized by poor load-bearing capacity with a rather large load on his house. It is worth noting that the construction of the foundation of the house on stilts has become very popular due to too high costs of materials and high performance. Pile foundation is a group of separate piles or piles, which are combined with each other via the top plate or beam.
The material for the production of slabs and beamsIt is a concrete or reinforced concrete. This design provides stability and security of future residential building in the case where a sufficiently large depth lies soft ground: sagging, loose sand. Pile foundations are also distinguished by manufacturing type and material used. According to the type of manufacturing can be identified:
- Driven foundations. Laid with the help of special machines on the previously undeveloped area.
- Pressed pile foundations. The piles are pressed into the ground by a powerful hydraulic pump.
- Ramming foundations. With their tab in the pre-drilled well supplied concrete.
Depending on the material used pile foundations may be:
- Metal. Piles are metal pipe.
- Wood. Piles are made of treated pine and are ideal for small wooden houses, whose height does not exceed 2 floors.
- Concrete. Such a foundation for concrete structures and is made of reinforced concrete.
- Combined. For this type of foundation is used metal and concrete, which allows to build houses in areas with complex engineering-geological conditions.
Solid floor - universal secure foundation
Slab foundations often lies on the surfaceground or recessed into it only slightly. It is a reinforced slab made of reinforced concrete, the thickness of which may range from 0.3 m - 1 m. Reinforcement plate is carried out via valves diameter 12mm - 25mm. Before laying the slabs being prepared surface of the low-strength concrete or sand that allows you to align the ground.
Slab foundation can be used on the weaksoils, as it promotes the efficient allocation of the load from the apartment building across the square plates laid. Moreover, it allows to take the horizontal and vertical deformation. Most often this type of foundation is used for the construction of buildings higher than two floors. Running and he cast at the construction site. It should be noted that the slab foundation is suitable for houses that have a complex structure. However, in this case, the plate must have expansion joints are cut through the slab into individual pieces.
Pier foundation - the budget choice
To lay the foundation for the house with his own hands as possible,opt for a columnar base. Pier foundation - it poles, loaded on a well-defined depth into the soil, or concrete, immersed in a pre-drilled hole. The pillars are joined on top by a reinforced concrete beams. Columnar foundations are optimal in the construction of low-rise buildings of 1-2 floors. The weight of the materials used for the construction must not be too large. Ideally, if the walls of the house are made of wood or other lightweight counterpart. For mesh objects it is also suitable pier foundation, but it is worth considering that it is used only on those grounds, which are not subjected to heave. Depending on the type of performance pier foundation can be:
- Monolithic. Made of concrete.
The material can serve as:
- A rock. Suitable for construction of residential houses with a fairly heavy designs.
- Tree. The most commonly used pine or oak. Suitable for small wooden buildings.
- Clay bricks.
- Concrete reinforcing reinforcement cage. Used in heavy construction of houses and buildings without a basement.
General recommendations on how to lay the foundation for the house
When deciding how to lay the foundation of the house, which will ensure its reliability and durability, it is first necessary to be guided by some general recommendations.
They are suitable for all types of foundation, being versatile, and are a list of factors that are recommended to look for when selecting and laying the foundation.
- Status of soil type.
- The depth of frost penetration.
- The load on the ground of the residential building construction.
- The presence of a basement or underground garage.
- The term of operation of a house under construction.
- Used for laying the foundation materials.
- The presence of underground utilities.
Undoubtedly, solving the problem of how to buildthe foundation for the house and avoid mistakes, it is necessary to know the possible flaws. A common mistake can be considered as laying the foundation of the future home on unconsolidated basis (ground). In addition, wrongly will not take into account the effect of lateral pressure exerted on the soil of the foundation wall. Wrong calculation of bearing capacity of soil can also lead to many negative effects, as well as the absence of a competent calculating the reference area of the house foundation. Do not neglect and activities related to the diversion of water from the basement.
The main stages of laying the foundation of the example of a band structure of the device
The question of how to make the foundation for the house properly, would resolve a clear sequence of actions. Thus, we can distinguish five basic steps in the foundation unit.
In the first stage of laying the foundation determinedthe state of soil and groundwater depth. To do this, dig a hole about 1 m depth and evaluate the composition of the soil, the presence of water in the pit. If it has, then the depth of the foundation should be greater than 0.5 m, and in its absence - the foundation of the depth may not exceed 0.5 m.
Then, a portion of marking and removal of topsoil. After this procedure, the perimeter of the future house dug a trench, the bottom of which is aligned with sand.
The third stage is carried out directlypouring the foundation. To do this, shuttering is manufactured from a specially prepared boards or plywood. The very concrete pouring is carried out of a class. The density of the concrete solution is directly proportional to the strength of the foundation: the thick solution, the stronger the foundation of the house. The width of the base should be greater than the wall thickness of approximately 20 cm.
Then carried out to waterproofingfoundation. To this end, the foundation on the ground level 2 is entered layer of roofing material, then continues its tab to the required height. The underground part of the foundation can be missed previously hot bitumen.
After the waterproofing layer is carried outlaying bricks or blocks, but in the opposite walls of the foundation are made holes for ventilation, thereby avoiding unwanted moisture under the floor of the house.
Thus, taking into account a number of nuances, to lay the foundation of the house with his own hands is not so difficult.