Ground floor device
When it comes to the way the device of floors the first floor of a private house, and you do not havenecessary knowledge to form their own opinion, bring to your attention some "educational program" for the device of floors. So there are two options: the first - floor unit on the ground, the second - on the plates or beams. If you have to build a house, where they will live periodically (cottage, hunting lodge), as well as if the soil moist and the house is located in a cold climate zone, the best design solution is the floor device on the beams, in other cases, the preferred floor unit directly on ground. The floors on the ground floor is really cheaper arranged on the beams (significant savings in construction and heat insulation materials). Let us consider the features of the device of floors on the ground.
- Types of flooring on the ground
- Apparatus concrete floor on the ground
- Sex with the underground
- The order of work
Types of flooring on the ground
Depending on the purpose of the premises andClimate features are arranged or solid (concrete) floors, or floors with the underground. Features screed is ideal for the terrace unit, veranda, garage or basement floors and the underground are better suited for the premises. screed multilayer device. Consider the sequence of layers (bottom-up).
Apparatus concrete floor on the ground
- Well compacted layer of clean river sand (bedding).
- A layer of gravel or expanded clay.
- Rough concrete screed.
- The thermal insulation layer.
- Fine cement.
- Finishing the floor covering.
Each layer has its own functionality. A layer of river sand and a layer of expanded clay or gravel are used to prevent the ingress of moisture in the ground floor of the capillary path. The thickness of bedding sand should be at least 5cm. The thickness of the gravel - 10cm. For better protection against moisture layer of crushed stone it is recommended to soak the bitumen. In wet soils second layer should be only rubble, concrete block in such a case is not applicable due to its ability to absorb water and swell. Each layer of the laying carefully compacted.
Rough concrete screed serves as a basis forwaterproofing must be 6-8cm thick, is applied to the layer of gravel, pre-coated plastic film. Polyethylene film in this case is not a waterproofing and applies only to the process order. Crushed concrete is taken shallow, and the sand of the river necessarily. Instead of roughing screed can use rubble spilling liquid cement-sand mortar, in this case, polyethylene is not applicable.
To create hydro-vapor barrier layerrough cement screed paste double layer of polyethylene film or roofing material, or a layer of bitumen. Hydro-vapor barrier layer must be sealed across the surface, it is a barrier to penetration of moisture from the soil in the upper layers of cake. Damage to Hydro-vapor barrier is unacceptable, because it leads to a saturation of moisture the floor, odors, fungus, mold and premature failure of the finish flooring.
For warming the floor is laid a layer of insulation(Layer thickness depends on climate zone). As a heater can be used polystyrene, mineral wool, foam glass and others. The most common insulation using extruded polystyrene. It is a durable material having a low coefficient of water saturation. When compared with other types of heaters have extruded polystyrene significantly higher crushing strength.
Insulation layer is coated finishcement screed, which certainly reinforced with welded wire mesh. For residential reinforcing mesh made of wire diameter 3 mm and a mesh size of 10 × 10 cm. For floors, which are assumed to increased loads, eg in the garage, for the mesh wire should have a diameter of 4 mm and 5 × 5 cm cell, plate made of concrete rubble faction 10-20mm. The thickness of the finishing screeds in residential areas should be at least 5cm, in the garage - 10cm.
If you intend to floor heating device(Electric or water) between walls and screed is laid a layer of polyurethane foam or polyethylene (1-2cm). This is done in order to create a thermal gap between the floor and the walls (if this is not done, when heated flooring expands and cracks can form in the screed). Since finishing screed is the basis of the floor covering, it should be smooth and applied on a pre-installed beacons.
According to the prepared finishing screed is laidfloor finish. As the screed is protected from moisture, the coating can be absolutely any: parquet flooring, laminate flooring, floor boards, linoleum, tile, etc.
A device of this pie safe, floor wellprotected from moisture and frost, but at the same time and is expensive. In milder climates and dry soils can be used a simplified floor construction on the ground.
The thickness of the device, and the feasibility of each layer depends on:
- the level of groundwater at construction site
- against mechanical load on the floor,
- on whether the heated floor.
If the groundwater level is less than 2m, thenpodsypku can not be used, and instead of roughing screed apply spilling rubble solution. When the alleged substantial loads (over 200 kg per m2) wire mesh reinforcement must be 4mm, in other cases - 3mm.
Keep in mind that the cake must not cheapeninglead to a deterioration of its reliability, it should not save especially if expected use of expensive finishing of wood flooring such as parquet or laminate.
The concrete floor on the ground has undeniableadvantages: it is durable, strong and relatively simple to manufacture. Mandatory insulation, because it is through the floor lost 20% of the heat the room and not the concrete protects the floor from the cold coming from the bottom. Warming necessarily for non-residential buildings (garages, sheds, barns).
The height of the floor level above floor level depending on how was insulated base. If only insulate the walls and the floor below the postthe top of the cap, it is in this place will freeze wall. If the cap is properly insulated, then the level of the floor may be below and above the top of the foundation.
Sex with the underground
floor unit with underground providesthe presence of the air gap between the floor and the ground surface (to prevent direct contact with the ground floor). This design is suitable in areas with high soil moisture (if the depth of groundwater is less than 2 meters), as well as in a case where the house is located in a cold climate zone, or when the floor unit in the house where the heating will be periodic (cottages, hunting lodges) .
When constructing such floors, the ground level must beBe below the floor level by 10-15cm, which is very important. The increase in the size of the air space between the foundation and the floor leads to heat loss, and if the dimensions are reduced (if the height of the underground is less than the indicated figures), ventilation will deteriorate considerably.
The soil is prepared in the following way:
- Removes the top layer of vegetation, in its place is filled layer of soil that is compacted with spilled water so as to obtain a layer height of 15-20cm.
- Sprinkle with gravel or crushed stone and tamp it thoroughly.
- On the obtained base is applied lime-crushed stone composition (you can replace it with construction waste, slag, brick fight).
Ground floor structure may varyDepending on the soil conditions. Between the bulk soil and gravel substrate, when the soil moisture, require additional insulation, consisting of two layers of roofing material, plastic film or a clay layer.
The order of work
First established by brick columns. Bookmark brick columns under the joists made in view of exposure required distance - 0,7-1m between them. For the construction of supports used roasted red brick (do not use sand-lime brick or artificial stone). Bollards installed around the perimeter and covered with roofing material for waterproofing, insulation should be attached on top of the wooden bars 3cm thick, treated with antiseptic.
The next step - laying lags. Lugs are made of halves of logs, they also desirable to treat with antiseptic. Joints lags must be above the bars. Proper positioning of the extreme lag - at a distance of 2-3 cm from the wall. Horizontal position lags checked the level, use pads for bars of different thickness, treated with antiseptic. When laying the lag may be uneven over the horizon to 3mm.
The floor on the logs can differ constructively fromWritten version: it is possible to use metal pipes instead of poles made of burnt bricks, or the rough floor can have a frame made of ribbed boards treated with an antiseptic.
On lags laid floorboard, whichis attached by nails. Boards should be tightly pressed against each other. If necessary, you can make a double wooden floor, first lay a layer of rough edging board, then a layer of waterproofing and finishing layer of the floorboard.
For good ventilation underground is needed toin which the opposite corners of the floor make ventilation windows 10 × 10 cm, which close the bars, and in the basement - special air holes, at least two for each room in the house.