The device of deal floors
Many people believe that the wooden floor - quiteoutdated coverage, they say, for the registration of housing should be given an advantage only the latest synthetic materials. This opinion is debatable, because the properly folded flooring from boards not creak, is a long time. And it's a warm, beautiful, easy to care for him, and if there are any deficiencies, they can completely repair their own hands. This floor looks great in a cottage, country house, only the harmony of the interior should not be forgotten.
- Choosing practical timber
- The nuances of laying plank floor
- Flooring planks on the joists
- The construction of the rough fundamentals
- Constructions of lag
- One or two layers?
- Floor on beams overlap
- Sanding wood flooring
- floor Staining
Choosing practical timber
Laying plank floor begins with a thoroughmaterial selection. It is best suited for this purpose softwood boards, such as pine, spruce, fir, larch. This wood has exquisite appearance, it is sturdy and durable. If in the future a wooden floor will be covered with varnish and paint do not, you need to pick up a light wood with natural fibers pattern and high gloss. It is believed that the most beautiful structure is mahogany and walnut. That's just the material is quite expensive, so if these costs are unacceptable, then we can stop the choice on the oak - the price is below the generally recognized ornamental rocks and texture is quite decent.
The next point - the need for layingUse only dry boards. Working with raw or over-dry timber is unacceptable, because the board warp, any gap, so the work will come to nothing.
Another important caveat - the protective measures, ie the treatment of wooden structures, prevents the development of rot and insect damage.
Important: while ignoring the processing step antiseptics consequences will be extremely disappointing: the floor will become worthless after a few years.
Especially spoil and destroy wood putrefactionfungi, rapidly destroying cellulose board turn into dust. Most dangerous are and fungi that feed on sap wood cells. Wood, startled by these microorganisms, changes color, becoming green or bluish mold.
It is in conditions typical for residentialpremises, fungi are active, so the logs, pads that are applied to the boardwalk devices certainly are processed antiseptic. Similarly, covered with antiseptic from the wrong side and the board, the front side in such a process does not need, because it will be applied to the paint, varnish or mastic.
For this purpose, optimally suited, for example,sodium fluoride, ammonium fluorosilicate. Experienced builders are advised to use the drug not only antiseptic, but also protects against fire and increases the service life of the nails and the screws that hold the board.
The nuances of laying plank floor
Technology laying depends on the boardwalkmany factors, since the thickness of the boards, such as the base and ending with a primary or a desire to reduce the reluctance of the room height. In any case, to start laying the flooring it is advisable only after the successful completion of major works. That is, the windows and doors installed, the ceiling and the walls are finished completely.
Important: during installation humidity of the room should not exceed the level of 60%, but the percentage is too low is not allowed.
plank floor unit consists of the following stages:
- lag styling from a prepared base;
- flooring boards;
- ostrozhek slack and subsequent cleaning from dust and chips;
- installation of ventilation grilles and baseboards.
Flooring planks on the joists
It is best to lay a wooden floor at the end ofheating season: Summer wood absorbs a lot of moisture, so dry out in the winter board and later the gap formed between the two. Well, if all the floor is laid in the summer, it is necessary to choose the period which precedes the hot weather (1-2 weeks).
The construction of the rough fundamentals
The flooring of planks on the ground made bySpecial concrete surface or on separate supports which are in no way connected with the structural elements. This device allows you to isolate the floor from the walls of the house, that is, to reduce the transmission of vibration and sound vibrations. However, this design requires a good waterproofing, because the moisture present in the soil, it is very detrimental effect on the wooden materials.
For the pillars of red brick goodthe base is concrete preparation: vtrambovanny the ground rubble, soil compaction necessarily undisturbed. Such bars are installed in rows, the intervals between them depend on the thickness of the planks. Then they are stacked logs, which is enclosed by a layer of roofing and antiseptic pads.
Important: wooden poles are not recommended because they rot quickly.
Often the underlying layer of concrete is uneven, onIt has depressions and mounds may be the level drops. For this reason, you must first straighten out all the existing defects, otherwise the floor will be uneven and the board will begin to creak, flex and "walk". To do this, the concrete surface is treated with a wire brush or roughing machine. All the resulting debris should be removed, and the surface is primed.
Constructions of lag
The device of deal floors It begins with the laying of the extreme lag of aboutopposite walls (15-25 mm gap), followed by the others. They are located across the direction of light, except the room is with a certain movement (corridor), then logs stacked across the aisle, and the cover board respectively along. This air space under the floor should not be communicated with the flue and air ducts, as well as in the premises with an area> 25 square meters. m. use additional separation walls into closed compartments.
With regard to the lag, they are placed on strictlysame level, the distance between them varies between 700-1000 mm. Large gaps are undesirable because sorokovke boards can sag. As used lag bars, the accuracy of their alignment checked two-meter rack (it must be based on all the joists without gaps), and the horizontal - level, which is mounted on the rail.
One or two layers?
Wooden floors can be laid in one / two layers. The second option is much more practical, because the floor is much better at trapping heat in the house. At arrangement of the two-layer flooring primarily equipped with a black floor nestroganyh boards (25 mm thick). These boards are located with respect to lag by 45 degrees and is firmly nailed. Then clean the floor is laid, and the well is sandwiched between layers of cardboard.
Now that the logs are stacked, you can start unfolding planed boards for layout.
Important: adjacent boards are selected so that the gaps have been formed most minimal (1 mm).
If necessary, the boards are cut so thatjoints located directly on the joists. clearance (width 20 mm) is made between the outer walls and the boards between the inner - 10 mm to boards do not rot from cold walls and had a margin space (with excessive moisture can be expanded).
When pre-layout board all again inspected for defects: cracks, resin stains. Bad board or completely discarded, or used in dark rooms (pantry).
Boardwalk stacked year layersnecessarily in different directions. This rule should be followed when using a particularly wide boards. Then the boards are numbered, so that later they were placed quickly, without re pristorozhki.
A short distance from the wall placed firstboard, which is attached with nails length of 100-125 mm (2 in each board). The best solution - hammering nails with a slope, and the cap must be flattened, sinking deep in the board.
Then the first board puts the second, on5o mm distance from the edge at the board hammered into logs or conventional bracket Smolyakova staples. The resulting gap is inserted safety bar, and then drive a wedge. Due to the fact that the wedge is driven with a certain force, the edges are pressed tightly, that is rallying the board. After nailing clamps are removed and placed next board. And so on.
After laying the joints pristragivayutsya boards to ensure that they were in the same plane and were smooth.
Important: to eliminate non-essential differences at the joints under logs cardboard, roofing felt, roofing felt (strongly chips).
The remaining gap between the floor and walls need toskirting close or fillets - profiled rails specific complex or simple shapes. Very good fitting to the wall skirting boards with bevels and grooves, but in this case violated ventilation plank cover, so arranged in the floor of the special air vents.
Important: the most comfortable and practical plinth with nashchelnikami softwood.
For best functionality freethe space between the stacked logs should fill insulation, as well as at the same time lay under the floor of a variety of communications. You also need to focus on fire safety design. With regard to the direction of laying planks, it depends on the designer's ideas, working conditions, most importantly do not forget the rule - the board must necessarily be perpendicular to the joists.
Note: recently, instead of nails builders increasingly use self-tapping screws.
Floor on beams overlap
This involves the use of half ascarrying beam elements that are the basis of overlap. The advantage of this floor is a reliable isolation of the structural elements from the soil. Plus, this design increases the overall strength of the house frame. But there is a significant drawback, which is rigid attachment beams with rims at home. This rigid structure is characterized by a high noise level, because all the vibrations and sounds transmitted through the floor beams on the building walls. Therefore desirable to arrange wooden floor directly on the joists, using them as logs.
Increased noise levels in part helps to avoidthe use of insulating gaskets made of rubber, felt impregnated with antiseptic and other materials vibropogashayuschih. The main method of dealing with "noisy floor" - the installation of additional transverse beams lag, which are stacked under the specific sound-absorbing pads.
Sanding wood flooring
To align the wooden planks used hand-held grinders and floor. First you need to remove from the surface of everything that is not nailed down, and carefully sweep the floor.
Important: you must check whether the floor of heads of nails, metal brackets, so as not to damage the abrasive belt.
This is followed by a walk around the floor and check whether the defects that require repair to grinding.
This work is very noisy and dusty, so you need to use a protective mask and eye protection, ear.
The machine must move along the boards toavoiding splits chips. During the grinding should not press hard on the car, because Grind significant layer of wood. The process begins with the use of the largest skin and finer finishes.
First, the floor must be well-vacuumed andthen you can start coloring. It gives extra heat the floor and prepares for further finishing. To paint brush can be used (water-emulsion paint applied along the boards) or nebulizer. After drying, the floor becomes lighter, but a beautiful rich tone he gets after the application of clearcoat. Stable nitrovarnishes not safe for health, and are inconvenient to use, so they are superseded akrilateksnymi one-component, polyurethane formulations, which diluted with water. They are easy in application, have little or no odor, dries quickly.
Mainly applied two coats of varnish, first - not very thick (do not try to fill their gap), the second - in 2 hours.
Important: if you will need a third, then before applying the lacquer surface should be roughened by grit sandpaper average.
Undoubtedly, laying wooden floors - a processrequires certain carpentry skills and the availability of special tools (cutting machine, zabivatel nails). But if all the rules can be qualitatively lay a floor that will not squeak, and will serve for a long time.