The unit floor in a wooden house
Saying the word "sex" most of usRepresents the final floor covering, without thinking that under it, as under the glaze of the pie, several layers of stuffing are hiding - complex engineering structures. This or that device of a floor in a wooden house depends, first of all, on the purpose of the house and its separate premises, on the quality and the possibilities of the bearing foundation, that is, the overlapping or the ground. And the most high-quality ceilings can not ensure the durability of the floor, if the basis for them was not properly prepared and does not have the required physical and mechanical characteristics.
- How does the floor of the wooden house
- The carrier base - overlap
- wooden floor device on the ground
- Single wooden floor
- Double wooden structure
How does the floor of the wooden house
The structure is located between the carrierbase and finishing flooring is called rough or subfloor. subfloors apparatus may be different, but in any case, a combination of the same constituent elements:
- underlayment - receives from the coverload transfers it to the wall and evenly distributes the base; This carrier can be either floor slab prepared in accordance with the ground;
- leveling layer - a dense layer of leveling the surface of the underlying layer; if you plan on gender bias, it also created at this stage, using a coupler or other techniques;
- an intermediate layer - a layer that connects to the underlying floor covering elements;
- insulating layers - provides heat and moisture,and soundproofing, and their location depends on how the floor will be arranged in a wooden house, and some of the functions will be assigned to the insulating layer.
So, wooden floors in a private house on the carrier equips basis, the role of which can carry soil or interfloor, plinth or basement floor.
The carrier base - overlap
Floors, furnished to the floor decks,hardly affected by significant changes in temperature and humidity. After all, the microclimate in their shared areas of the first and second floors is almost the same is quite stable, and therefore the design of the floor does not require additional heat and vapor barrier. For this type of floor insulation and longer important if on the second floor there are toilets, care should be taken of enhanced protection against possible leaks.
In the case where a wooden house floor separatesHeated floor of the unheated basement or plinth, its thermal protection should be given special attention. As the warm air flow is directed from the top down, from the living room to the basement, the protective vapor barrier should be placed on top of the thermal insulation directly under floor finish. Otherwise, the insulating layer will be wetted with condensate and lose thermal insulation properties.
wooden floor device on the ground
The construction of wooden bystrovozvodyaschihsyahouses wood floor unit on the ground is quite popular: they are cheap, but their design is simple. Also, this method is widely used device of floors in basements, if they are provided by the project, and ancillary buildings for different purposes. More often than others in wooden houses equip floors on supporting pillars.
Important: Floors on the ground can be used only on dry ground! The wooden floor on the supporting poles is installed only in cases when the special construction load-bearing beams for laying the floor are not laid in the construction of the walls of the wooden frame. The floor on the pillars is a "floating" structure, independent of the supporting walls.
Installation of the wooden floor to the supporting pillarsperformed in the following sequence. At the beginning of the underground space is removed a layer of sod to a depth of not less than 50 cm, and the cavity is filled layer of crushed stone, gravel or river sand. Backfill layer and thoroughly watered with a special seal ramming technique. Upon completion of the level of backfill compaction should extend above the ground around the house for about 20 cm.
The next stage is the installation of support pillars. As a material for supporting poles, it is best to use brick, not silicate, but red. The cross-sectional area of the support column to ensure the stability of the entire structure is selected according to its design height: the higher the poles, the larger the cross-sectional area is required. If the height of the brick pillars does not exceed 250 mm, they are laid in one and a half bricks, and at a height of 250 mm and higher - in two. Sometimes install concrete pillars with overall dimensions from 400x400 mm to 500x500 mm. First set the poles around the perimeter of the house in steps of 50-60 cm, carefully leveling the horizontal, because it depends on the perfectly flat surface of the future floor. After completing the installation of external supports, mount the internal. Their step, depending on the constructive solution of the future sex, can be 70-100 cm.
Important: Sometimes the construction of wooden country houses for seasonal living interior supporting columns are not set, and the necessary strength of the floor provide a special thick beams, the cross section of which is calculated in the design of the house.
After completing the installation of poles, their ends protect layerwaterproofing normally serve this function 2-3 roofing layer, and start laying the supporting beams. Supporting beam - this whole beam or beams of appropriate length, but if it is of such a timber is not available or for some reason you can not use it, you can do shorter beams stykuya them on the pillars of support. Exposing beams, again carefully checked using the horizontal level, if required, dub them using wooden wedges and spacers. When all the beams are exposed, the position of pads and wedges should be fixed with nails. The carrier base is prepared on the supporting beams, it is now possible to lay a subfloor made of wood, which may be single or double.
Important: If the wooden house to be used as a summer residence in the warm season and in the winter it will not be heated, in order to prevent displacement of the supporting pillars in connection with the freezing of the soil, should be made a higher podsypku and its upper layer is made of coarse gravel.
Single wooden floor
Simple in design and operation of singlewooden floor most often placed in the cottages where people reside only in the warmer months. The wooden cottages small area not always create the design of the supporting pillars, and simply mounted to the outer wall log girders intended for the arrangement of the floor.
Laying the floor in a wooden house a small areaIt is performed in the following order. If the bearing support beams originally provided for in the design of the outer walls of a log house, the first between the two necessarily lay logs and then they lay a single floor boards.
If the project of wooden houses providedsingle floor on the support pillars and the joists are usually stacked with the requirements of this particular type of floor in the process of creating the structure. That is, when the distance between the support pillars 80 cm placed girders section 100x100 mm, and if the distance between supports of 100 cm, the paving of the beam section 120x120 mm.
If the system meets these supporting beamsconditions, then right on top of them can be laid floor decking. If for some reason this condition is not fulfilled, then on the first bearing beams stacked grid of lag and only on her plank flooring. Laghi - a wooden block section of 50x50 mm or 60h60mm that fits on top of the grid supporting beams. Step stacking lag is selected depending on the thickness of the board intended for laying the floor. If the thickness of the decking, designed for flooring, 28 mm, the logs are placed at a distance of 50 cm and with a thickness of 38 mm decking lag step is increased to 60 cm.
Expanding all logs to the base beams, by means ofwedges and shims exhibit lag system on the level, and finally firmly fixed nails. Right on the lag system laid a black floor edging boards or finishing of decking. On the subfloor is laid any floor covering: linoleum, laminate, carpet. Finishing floor decking usually scrape and coated with several layers of varnish or other compositions for flooring.
Single wooden floors laid cottagewooden houses and other temporary or auxiliary constructions when thermal insulation characteristics do not play a role, and determine the range of options low cost and speed of installation. In the capital of wooden houses, designed for continuous or intermittent stay throughout the year, including winter, it is recommended to equip the double warm wooden floors.
Double wooden structure
A more complex than a single doublewooden floor - a multi-layered structure consisting of rough planks from edging boards, paroizoliruyuschego, heat-saving and noise-absorbing layer, and finally hung finishing of decking planks. This capital structure floor retain a pleasant coolness in the house of hot summer and will provide a comfortable climate in the winter cold.
It starts laying a wooden floor doubleinsulated structure with stacking on top of lying on the supporting pillars bearing beams of the system of so-called cranial bars. On cranial beams and plank floor rough, tight fitting boards together .. fit any boards 15-45 mm thick sub-floor. This board can be low grade, Unedged board, slab, but it must necessarily be made of wood conifers, the best - of larch. That is, it must be a timber with a high resin content previously treated with an antiseptic.
Stacked subfloor is applied to itheat-shielding layer. This could be any modern heat-insulating material such as mineral wool or foam. But in the tradition of wooden house-building as a sub-floor insulation has long been used very well-proven mixture of sawdust and clay in a ratio of 1: 1, moistened with a little water, which is applied a layer of 35-50 mm thickness. Atop the dried clay and sawdust layer spread a layer of fine srednekrupnogo or expanded clay. The thickness of the bulk of expanded clay layer should be 5-10 mm, but in this case between the layer of insulation and final finishing flooring must remain a clearance of at least 10-15 mm.
At the request of a thick layer of insulation can beput any polymer film, which performs the function of a vapor barrier, and you can start laying the finished floor of the decking. The board and the rough and finish flooring nailed to the joists or cranial bars nails at an angle of 40-45 ° at a distance of 15-20 mm from the edge on each side. The board finished floor is laid tight and the gap between two adjacent boards should not exceed 1 mm, or in the case of cracks of the wood in the floor may appear too wide gap.
If you finish the floor plan to leave astopcoat, then scrape and varnish, then fasten it to the joists is better to use special nails without caps, scoring them with a metal plaque dobojnika to a depth of 3-5 mm. If the planned installation of parquet, the second, the so-called finishing flooring can be made of lower quality boards, and then, following the technology to lay flooring.
Given that the design of the floor on the support pillarsis not bound by rigid ties with the rest of the structure, to prevent shock loads on the vertical partitions and walls, in their places of contiguity leave a gap of about 20 mm. The gaps are filled with special gaskets made of elastic material, and then decorate the plinth.
For ventilation of the space between the layers of doublethe floor in the corners of the finish flooring made through holes 50-60 mm in diameter, which cover the decorative grilles, visors, slightly raised above the floor of 10-15 mm, that during the harvest in the cellar is not exposed to water. For better ventilation vents in the floor alone is not enough, so it is in the basement of the house provide a special ventilation windows or hatches.
The proposed technology of laying double floorsuitable for arranging floors in hallways, living room, study and bedroom wooden house. In kitchens and bathrooms in the regeneration of this type of flooring will need to pay more attention to sealing waterproofing technology gaps in the joints of the floor construction and walls.