Technology laying a solid board
Massive board called finishing floorcoating made in solid hardwood or softwood, in the sides of which are provided by the manufacturer for the grooves and ridges of dense connections with adjacent boards. Floor boards whole array of different presentable appearance, excellent retains heat, resistant to stress, durable and environmentally friendly, it is convenient to use and, if necessary, can tolerate multiple scraping, sanding or polishing. When laying solid wood floor is made with strict observance of instructions and original quality of the material corresponds to the technology standards that beautiful and durable floor it will last more than one generation.
- Landmarks and selection criteria
- Types and preparation of grounds for laying
- Preparation of the concrete base
- The carrier base on joists
- Base - an existing wooden floor
- laying methods: glue and glueless
- Laying solid wood
- Finish solid wood
Landmarks and selection criteria
Durability and high performancecharacteristics of the future floor of natural wood to the same extent depend on the compliance with the installation instructions, and the quality of the original solid wood. In turn, the quality of the board in solid depends on the following factors:
- the quality of the feedstock;
- equipment production line of the manufacturing plant;
- modern drying technology.
Air Conditioning timber for the manufacture of floorin solid board should not contain through holes, knots, fungus or rot. From the modern technical equipment of the factory and its compliance with the drying technology depends on the stability of the linear dimensions of the finished product. In modern woodworking plants wood is dried under high pressures to a minimum moisture content, it is impregnated with antiseptics to the full depth and then artificially adjusted to the optimum moisture content of conditioned performance.
In most enterprises, the board of the array afterdrying grind and coated on the surface of the wear several layers of lacquer or oil or coated with wax and floor of such boards are ready for use directly after installation. If the finishing of natural floor boards of an array of factory fails, then it is produced at the final stage after laying.
High-quality solid wood must meet the following criteria:
- Humidity - 7-10%;
- thickness - 15-30 mm, but can reach 50 mm;
- width - 100-150 mm;
- length - 50 cm to 3 m, and found to 6 m;
- tolerances of linear sizes - no more than 0.5 mm.
From the thickness of the solid wood depends on the strength andbasic mechanical characteristics of the future sex. Most often used planks thickness of 20-25 mm, but the final choice depends on the kind of framework for gender, type of wood and the purpose of the premises.
Types and preparation of grounds for laying
Floors made of solid wood can be laid in anyrooms: wooden and stone private houses and apartments in high-rise brick, panel or monolithic concrete houses. The ground floor include:
- reinforced concrete slab intermediate floors;
- supporting metal or wooden structures - lag;
- the supporting pillars of the ground floor of a private house;
- old wooden floors.
In all these cases we use the same technology of laying solid wood, but the preparation of each type of base has its own idiosyncrasies.
Preparation of the concrete base
The concrete base, if required, align using cement-sand screed.
Important: solid wood flooring is recommended to lay the fresh concrete only in 2,5-3 months after pouring. Readiness check the basics, tightly pressed to the surface of a small sheet of polyethylene. If after 48 hours, at a location to the concrete side of the film is not settled condensate, suitable base for the continuation of works on the floor laying.
On a dry and flat surface laidvapor control layer of polyethylene foam or dirt mastic. Polyethylene film can be laid overlapping or butt gluing the cloth tape construction.
On top of stacked sheets of vapor barrierwaterproof plywood, sawn lengthwise beforehand at hand to strip 40-60 cm wide. Fragments plywood base laid diagonally or in a staggered manner so that there is a gap between 2.3 mm and a sheet of plywood between the extreme and the wall there is a gap of about 10 cm. Stacked plywood base, it is firmly attached to the concrete using screws and plugs at 15 attachment points per 1 sq.m. utaplivajut heads of the screws to a depth of 3-4 mm.
If the layer paroizoliruyuschegoused dirt sealant, plywood base can be glued. To this paste was diluted with solvent to the optimum consistency is applied on the concrete, and it is glued plywood sheets prepared by applying to them compatible with the mastic adhesive.
Important: a plywood base, laid on concrete floors can be laid solid wood, if its thickness is less than 25 mm.
The carrier base on joists
The carrier base on joists used inarrangement of the floor in new homes with very uneven concrete base floors on supporting pillars on the first floor of private houses, as well as in cases where a topcoat is planned to use an array of board thicknesses greater than 25 mm. Construction of the base substrate on joists very popular, as the design does not require operations with water, followed by drying and quickly mounted.
Wooden joists are called rectangular bars,usually section 50h55 mm and a length of 70-100 cm. Krepjat them to concrete or other materials screws with plugs perpendicular to the direction of the future floorboards. Pitch lag is typically 25-30 cm and the distance between adjacent points of attachment to the stem - no less than 50 cm.
The space is laid a layer between joistsmineral wool, which also serves as thermal insulation and sound insulation, which is especially important for the first floor. Over lag lay and secure the staple gun layer vapor barrier material, and finally laid subfloor of waterproof plywood - laying the groundwork for the board.
Base - an existing wooden floor
There is a wooden floor can serve as a basislaying a solid board, if there is a strong belief in his strength. Otherwise it is better to dismantle it and create a new, modern basis. If there is doubt, the old floor grind grinder setting coarse sanding belt, carefully cleaned from dust and lay the waterproofing layer of conventional or polyethylene foam.
Solid timber in this case is placed in thesame direction as the main floor boards. If you expect a different direction topcoat, over the polished floor of the existing foundations are laid a layer of water-resistant plywood thickness of about 12-15 mm.
Thus, regardless of the design basesfloor, it is a finishing layer of waterproof plywood. Before laying the finishing flooring from solid wood subfloor of plywood grind grinder and remove dust.
laying methods: glue and glueless
Flooring boards made of solid natural woodplaced glue or glueless method. With the application of the adhesive is laid board made of valuable wood, which tends to be thinner than the common species, and its length rarely exceeds 2 m - affected by the high price. Preferred as the adhesive method of laying solid wood floor in the regeneration of areas in a very large area or complicated the wrong path, and on very small areas, for example in the field of door and arched openings.
When the glue laying solid wood floorboardsis bonded to the base with special glue, tightly joined together in the transverse and longitudinal directions and attached to the base in the lateral junctions with screws at 45 °, the cap pushing it to a depth of 3-5 mm.
Taped to the floor from the array-based naturalseasonal tree resistant to deformation, durable, it does not need compensation expansion joints. At the same time he is very moody when temperature and humidity above the permissible and is not suitable as a finish floor heating systems "warm floor". Finally, to replace even a small damaged area has to completely dismantle all laid on the floor glue.
A more modern glueless method of laying solid wood floor is easy to perform and is always used when working with the product, equipped with a locking system "thorn-groove".
Laying solid wood
On the eve of the start of the massive floor flooringboard should be made to the premises, to take out from the package, put in a stack and leave for 3-5 days. This is necessary to ensure that the material has taken the temperature and humidity environment and subsequently deformed during the operation floor.
If the base floor properly prepared andselected high-quality material, laying a solid board with their own hands will not create even a layman problems. Manufacturers recommend laid board from the array at a relative humidity of 60% and an air temperature 10-30 ° C. Most often massive board lay parallel to the direction of light illuminated from the window, but any other possible solutions, such as diagonally.
Laying the first ryadya floorboards begin along the mostlong walls parallel to the axis of the floor, the wall spike are aligned and fixed with screws so that they can be closed molding. The opposite side of the wall board is fixed to the base or logs, screwing screw into the groove at an angle of 45 °. Fixing screws to operate based on wood, the length of which should be in the 2-2.5 times the thickness of the board.
Important: Every floorboard it is necessary to fix the joists on all with whom she comes in contact.
Each subsequent row of boards placed a thorn in the groovethe board of the previous row, not forgetting to attach to the base with screws. For maximum snug fit of the boards to each other, they are driven by a pad. The last row of boards, like the first, is fixed to the base with screws so that they could hide under the baseboard. Between the extreme rows of floorboards and walls leave the expansion gap of 8-10 mm.
Finish solid wood
If you have used solid wood floor withapplied at the factory topcoat, the floor can be operated immediately after installation. In the case of the untreated solid boards, just laid floor must "settle" for about a week, and then it is polished and coated with two coats of varnish to prevent drying out or waterlogged wood.
Mandatory grinding is also subject to a floor ofnatural wood, if the difference in thickness of two adjacent boards exceeds the permissible 0.5 mm and apparent. Massive board sanded along the grain, using abrasive belt with grain of 0.15 mm. If the surface of the floorboards during installation appeared defects, dents, burrs, they should be putty, sand, and only then apply the varnish.
Fans of natural wood floor caninstead of varnish to use special oil-wax composition for coating wood. Agents based on natural oils and waxes, in contrast to the varnish, the board is impregnated throughout the thickness of the array, creating on the surface of the thinnest protective film. This coating effectively accentuates the natural texture of wood, protecting it at the same time against attack by insects, fungi or mold.
Practical solid wood asflooring proved by centuries of trouble-free service, it is beautiful, spectacular, respectable. Despite its venerable age of use, solid wood board never goes out of style lends itself to any type of treatment, up to artificial aging, so popular among designers to create interiors in "vintage" style.