Undoubtedly, the quality, the baseprovides a floor longevity, its strength, durability and aesthetic characteristics. It can be a design on the joists, floor height adjustment, dry concrete or screed. In each case, the materials must comply with the functional parameters of a particular room. Therefore, the rough floor of the wooden house need to develop, adhering to certain rules, which will be discussed.
- What is called the sub-floor
- Device sub-floor
- The floors on joists
- Adjustable floor
- Screed - wet and dry
- Filling coverage - a modern solution
- Interlayer - a guarantee of long-term
What is called the sub-floor
The rough floor - the concept is quite extensive, which does not have an unambiguous definition. It is because of misinterpretation and very often there is confusion.
For example, the sub-floor is called the ground forlaying laminate flooring, linoleum, parquet. Basically, flooring arranged in sheets (OSB, particle board, plywood), as well as from the boards laid on joists. The main purpose of this floor - leveling ground plane and load distribution.
This term is also called and the lower layerdouble plank floor, used at widely spaced joists and lag. At the same time the board subfloor is laid diagonally. Thanks to multi-directional fibers such combined coating acquires additional strength.
But there is another notion of sub-floor - the bottom layer of the double insulated ceilings. This boardwalk serves as the retention of waterproofing and insulation.
Sex - a kind of suitcase with a double bottom,Because under the outer layer is the base, which is called the "rough floor". The final result directly depends on the state of this base coat: a tubercle, slight curvature or other defects will inevitably appear on the face in the future. Therefore, simple alignment is not enough, it is necessary to carry out the construction process so that the rough floor "stood still", that is, it did not crack, did not exfoliate, and did not break into pieces.
It should be noted that the creation of a strong,stable and level sub-floor - is not easy, but quite feasible. True, until recently, this process is perhaps the most time consuming and time-consuming step of repair. Fortunately, new technologies have changed the situation radically, because the specialized mixes simplified device sub-floor. balancing quality has reached a higher level, but the sand-cement screed can not be discounted. Their main trump card - low cost (in most cases sand concrete is used for traditional alignment). If you look into the matter and make a comparative analysis, we can understand that the small benefit: cement-sand the floor has several disadvantages. A leveling layer of mortar on a step ahead: needs no steel reinforcement, does not shrink, does not flake, does not crack and quickly sets and hardens.
Important: The operating rate variations are also observed (not more than 2 mm per 2 m of the surface), but subject to unconditional execution of the instruction.
The rough floor - a set of layers that provide a level and solid foundation under the topcoat. It consists of:
- screed - is done in the case where you need to line the bottom and hide the wires;
- waterproofing - preventing water penetration through the floor;
- underlayment - creation of uniform load;
- stratum - a link to the underlying floor;
- heat and sound insulation.
The floors on joists
To date, though it is not the most popular, but well-known technology. Logs - wood or plastic boards, which are arranged horizontally.
Their most important advantage - the lack ofwet processes, and through the air gap does not rot wood flooring, ventilated and can be efficiently used for laying engineering communications.
Important: the distance between the bars, it is desirable to complete soundproofing materials.
Installation of floor joists on has its own nuances:
- observed distance between adjacent joists - 40 cm;
- correct and accurate floor level exposure (zero slope);
- the gap to the wall (2-3 cm) - in the future it will cover skirting;
- mounted on a lag crate on top - a sheet of plywood or OSB;
- the perfect styling - vrazbezhku like when masonry;
- edge of the plywood reinforced with a gap of 2 mm, that is, both the sheets must be on the lag. This principle eliminates the squeak;
- If the thickness of the plywood is missing, then laid another layer;
- Plywood at the ends and by the lag is processed antiseptic.
This is a fairly new way of creating roughcoating and very relevant in the case when it is necessary to raise the floor level at 2-12 cm. His device is characterized by simple installation and ease of design. Apply these floors not only in private homes, in offices, too, to the same under them can be safely hide communication and install sound and heat insulation. Most often adjustable floor is used where there are large differences in height, as other methods are difficult to align.
How to create a rough floor of this type? The idea is this: in plywood drilled holes and inserted to the plastic sleeve (female). Metal dowel-nails, they are fixed to the concrete pillar through bolts. Plywood is put on the bushing with bolts rack with screws can rotate, raising and lowering the sheets that is thus aligning surface.
Screed - wet and dry
This option is the most common, screedIt is wet (concrete) and dry. Last - the filling floor, representing a multilayered construction. First, the surface is placed parovlagoizolyatsiya (Yutafol, plastic film, IZOSPAN), which is fixed construction tape. Then, a layer of 30-50 mm is distributed dry filling, it can be expanded clay, fine slag, expanded perlite. Along the wall on the perimeter of the floor is made of elastic suture materials, they compensate for thermal expansion of the base and eliminates sound bridges.
The top layer is a tie - plywood panels,gypsum sheets, OSB, particle board, ready modules with polystyrene foam. The sheets are stacked in two layers and sealed with glue and screws, but not necessarily with the joints offset. The final stage - laying finish.
Important: The screed team of wood boards covered with flame retardant.
Advantages of dry backfill floor are obvious: speed, possibility of installation in any period of the year, the convenience and good compensation of any unevenness in the floor.
Classical concrete screed - a more traditional option, because the materials are inexpensive and widely accessible. This draft floor with their hands (on the ground) hard to do:
- cleaning debris from the base;
- laying underlayment - gravel (thickness 10 cm) and its further consolidation;
- filling sand (thickness 10 cm) and a similar tamper;
- installation of heat and waterproofing - floor protection from moisture;
- application of cement-sand or plaster solution;
- Rule alignment.
Following these steps should work screed dry. Drying may take a week or a month, it all depends on the layer thickness.
Classical screed allows alignmentsignificant differences of heights (up to 3 cm), forms a hard surface, the most suitable for finishing with linoleum, laminate, granite. But because of the rough texture is impossible to achieve a perfect, smooth layer, so use an extra layer - finishing (self-leveling compounds).
Filling coverage - a modern solution
Among the new technologies we can not fail to mentionFloor inlet - a mixture of cement, polymeric materials (synthetic resins, polyurethane), the reinforcing components that prevent the formation of microscopic cracks. Besides roughing and finishing screed in this case is a single process, and is a significant advantage.
The process of creating self-leveling floor is poured a mixture of base fluid, which is leveled with a spiked roller to remove air bubbles.
Compared with polymer concrete screed floor is thinner, therefore reducing the drying period. As a rule, this figure is indicated on the packaging, and lasts up to 2 weeks.
Interlayer - a guarantee of long-term
The structure of any gender, in particular coveredlaminate, carpet, flooring, provides for the substrate: polypropylene foam, extruded polystyrene, cork underlay, fibreboard. Their attachment to the sub-floor can be done in several ways:
- glue - it is the most popular, but its application should think in advance installation as glued underlayment remove virtually impossible;
- double sided tape - used for plastic materials;
- termoskotch and irons for welding - created quite durable surface;
- screws and staples construction - fastest method, but requires skill: brackets should shoot in not very deep (so as not to deform the substrate) and high (so as not to stick out attachment points).
Qualitative performance of the sub-floor - the key to trouble-free operation and a long floor, an important component.