How to make a concrete screed floor with their hands
The answer to the question: "How to make a concrete screed floor with your hands?" For more than one decade in does not lose its relevance. By obscure reasons, more than a dozen years in the Russian construction industry has a tradition, according to which in the construction of houses leveled floor slab on one side only. Namely the one where the ceiling is lower apartment.
- Preparing for the "wet" equalization
- We select the necessary tools
- Prepare the surface by screed
- Expose level, as it should be
- The process of installing beacons
- Preparing grout
- Laying ties with their own hands
- Exposure concrete screed
- The final stage - finishing layer
Right hand and quality finish,serving as the floor, as a rule, no one does. As a result, such a surface is always uneven, dimpled and sometimes sticking valves, and in some places there are level differences with a difference of 5-10 cm. Naturally, in order to perform a good quality coating on a floor surface is necessary to work hard and in the first all necessary concrete screed.
Preparing for the "wet" equalization
Outset that perform such work would require the Executive ownership of the two basic skills:
- Ability to prepare a working mixture.
- Ability to place beacons for the further implementation of the screed.
We select the necessary tools
It is no secret that today there is a motorized version of the tie, but for its devices, you must have special equipment and extensive practical experience.
In the vast majority of cases the implementation of such work has been the owner of housing, so the first thing he must do is to prepare the necessary tools and materials.
Thus, the concrete floor screed must be performed with the use of these tools:
- Gidrouroven that you can easily build improvised. To do this will require a half-liter plastic bottle and a flexible hose. In this case, the principle of communicating vessels is activated.
- Putty knife.
- Master OK.
- Roller for applying a primer or waterproofing.
- Attachment on a drill to prepare the mixture.
- Special containers where the solution will be prepared (30 liters).
Prepare the surface by screed
Concrete floor screed with his hands suggestspreliminary preparation of the surface. To do this, you can use an industrial vacuum cleaner and cleaning can be done by hand, in a word, all the dust and debris should be removed. Then sealed with a conventional cement mortar existing cracks and holes. In places dock floor and walls of the damper fits tape, which must protrude above the surface of the screed approximately 3-5 cm. This will help to avoid the manipulation of the flow of the liquid solution on the ceiling neighbor's apartment, and also protect against cracking, after the screed is completely ready .
In addition qualitatively executed cementscreed impossible without waterproofing. For this activated a special composition: penetrating insulation, asphalt or alkyd insulation. Such materials are available under the brand names -. Knauf, IVSIL, Litokom, Penetrol etc. In extreme cases, can be laid on the bottom of a future tie polyethylene, and if it is not whole cloth, the docking areas adjacent pieces should overlap by 20 30 cm.
Expose level, as it should be
Before making a concrete floor, you mustfind the highest point, and set the level. The highest point will be the benchmark by which will be determined by the thickness of the screed and will be put up beacons. A thickness of screed material selection depends directly, from which it is actually performed, as well as their number. Therefore, it is very troublesome crucial moment, which determines how quality is basically made cemented floors.
Along the perimeter of the entire room is laidbaseline, and then put the starting mark at a distance of about 1 meter from the floor slab level. And then you will need a line-level, with the help of which is drawn a line around the perimeter of the room. In addition, you can use a more modern gidrouroven or laser level. In this way, you are installing the base level.
When measuring the distance from the base level tofloor surface and the highest point. For example, the line is laid at a distance of 1 meter from the floor. If you measure the distance from the previously selected level line to the floor surface, it may be that at some point, this distance is 1 meter, and in some 97 centimeters. And that, and another point to be signed. The point with the minimum distance from the floor to the level of the line and will be the highest point. Then you need to move down the zero level, to properly orient the level of the floor.
Do not be amiss to define the highest point incenter of the room. For this purpose, the thread is stretched across the width of the room, and then need to go through its entire length. If it turns out that the highest point is just in the center of the room, there shall be a new zero level. And on the highest point it has to defend to 3 centimeters, so that later could be seamlessly made of cement-sand screed. In other words, the minimum thickness of the screed must be 30 millimeters in any point of the surface.
The process of installing beacons
Equally responsible is the processbeacons installed. At its core are installing the guide system are exposed in accordance with a zero level. As most lighthouses are taken T-shaped guides, specially designed to perform such types of work, or U-shaped profile.
It is worth to emphasize the fact that the cementscreed floor with his hands is a "wet" process. It is for this reason must not be used for pads under the beacons cardboard pieces, fiberboard, wood or other material of the unstable to moisture. The fact that the use of such materials may subsequently lead to the destruction of the screed in the field installation of beacons. Ideally, you need to use plastic or metal plates. Do not use the timber as a guide.
All guides are set parallel to eachother. The distance between the outer rails and the wall is 20 centimeters, and the adjacent beacons must be placed at a distance less than the length of the rule by 30-40 centimeters. In a handful of cement are stacked parallel guides, and they are subject to long-range level and it is on it equal to the guide.
Likewise, the profiles exhibited by level withusing self-tapping screws. But for this you need to pre-drill holes and drive plugs in the floor slab. In the same case, where preference is given to fixing the beacon using a cement mixture, the beginning of implementation of the screed should be postponed until such time has not yet strengthened rails.
Mortar screed preparingindependently, is observed with a ratio of 1: 3, where one part of cement accounts 3 parts of sand. Although at the moment the market is replete with modern ready-made mixtures, which are prepared in accordance with the instructions attached to it. In any case, the first dry blend trowel or spatula thoroughly mixed.
Then, for the preparation of the solution containerfilled with water, and it gradually introduces the dry mixture. By using this special nozzle and drill performed until constant stirring until the vessel is not a homogeneous mass of required consistency. As they say: "It must be like thick cream." And in the case of cement-sand mortar homemade his willingness to be verified as follows: in a fist compressed wad of ready mix: if it does not spread and does not break, it means that everything is in order.
It is unacceptable use of the usual river sand, not precleaned.
Depending on the availability of funds can beadding a plasticizer to the mixture, which will help minimize the occurrence of cracks. As is known, plasticizer - a substance that imparts a solution of fluidity, elasticity and plasticity.
Laying ties with their own hands
- Cement-sand screed in the initial stage is always laid at the corner opposite the exit from the premises.
- Cash solution matched either with a trowel and then the rule is contracted to the exit.
- Alignment is performed strictly according to the beacons, and thus it is necessary to provide their location at a predetermined flatness of the floor surface.
- At the heart of the art of contraction are small oval motion rule. We can say that the equalization principle is similar to the process of grouting of the walls.
Exposure concrete screed
As a rule, the screed drying time lasts about3 weeks. It is very important during this time to moisturize regularly tie with a roller, and then cover the foil. These conditions will allow adequate time to cure screed and to avoid further cracking.
Attention! It is important to ensure the lack of drafts in the room!
The final stage - finishing layer
The need for finishing arises screedWhen the floor is supposed to furnish flexible floor coverings, such as carpet or linoleum everyone's favorite. It produced such screed with self-leveling floor technology for this as there are special premixed eminent manufacturers - Bergauf, IVSIL, Knauf, miners and others.
It is self-leveling floor mixused in the preparation of the surface for laying tiles. As commercially available materials designed to perform the covering, the thickness of which does not exceed 5 centimeters. They are characterized by a special reinforcing microfibers, which means that a process such as reinforcement ties can be omitted. It is on the correct choice of material for finishing the screed depends on its cost.
To perform this operation you must firstevenly primed with a cement-concrete floor. Then, according to the manufacturer's instructions, and diluted leveling mixture is poured onto the floor. And to create the surface it was perfectly flat, it is possible the use of a roller or trowel in problem areas. In principle, all - after a day on this floor, you can safely walk. It also dries important to maintain a certain atmosphere in the room. Especially it is necessary to ensure that there was no draft.