Guidelines for laying tiles on the floor
No matter how we tried to look up and awayforward look obstinately fix our attention on what is directly in front of the eyes and below. Perhaps this is why, going into an unfamiliar room, we first notice how beautiful parquet floor living room and carefully whether laid floor tiles in the hallway or kitchen. Our advice on how to put the tiles on the floor properly, will help you to create your own perfect interior of any room of your house or apartment.
- Rules for the choice of tiles for floor
- Preparation of the base for laying tiles
- How to prepare a wooden base
- Rules for the preparation of concrete foundations
- Prepare a "warm floor"
- Circuits and methods for laying tiles on the floor
- Starting from the most visible corner
- We start from the middle of the wall
- Laying tiles from the center of the room
- Layout floor before laying
- Adhesives for floor tiles
- Recommendations future tilers
- Trimming and grouting
Rules for the choice of tiles for floor
When choosing tile for the floor, be sure to considerthe appointment of the premises - this will help not pay for the operating properties of the material, which will not be in demand. The maximum necessary information can be extracted from the labeling on the packaging.
For example, if the hallway is the highest traffic density, floor covering for it must comply with class III-IV durability.
For bathroom and kitchen are especially important resistance to moisture and aggressive chemicals, and for these rooms is better to choose the tiles marked with AA II-III class resistance.
For the living room or bedroom is unlikely to need a tile for the kitchen on the floor: the humidity in these areas are always correct, and therefore the choice of tiles in class II-III for them is quite optimal.
The thickness of the tiles for the floor should be at least 8-12mm. The geometric dimensions can be chosen at its discretion, but with tiles 30x30 cm, 45x45 cm or 33,3h33,3 see the work will move faster and the possible stacking faults are not as noticeable.
Preparation of the base for laying tiles
To the base, which fits on the top coat, including ceramic tiles must meet the same requirements:
- reliability and durability;
- ideal geometry and smooth surface;
- good adhesion.
Tile can be placed on almostany basis: self-leveling, concrete, wood floors, and a system of "warm floor". If a self-leveling floors, everything is clear, the other bases, depending on the type, prepared for laying of tile topcoat in different ways.
How to prepare a wooden base
Do not hesitate to lay tiles on a wooden floor is possible only if its status is not in doubt: strong boards, not rotted from dampness, not damaged by insects, fungus or mold.
Shata cracked floorboards securelyscrews and drill into the floor as much as possible to the air vents. Lay at the base of overlapping layer of polyethylene film or foamed polyurethane waterproofing. On top lay a layer of film gipsovolokonnyh sheets so that each sheet is shifted to the next row of the sheet with respect to the previous row in the half: that is, start the first row with a whole sheet, and the next - to cut in half. The joints of sheets, seal waterproofing mastic, or glue PVA, and on the surface, apply a coat of primer to improve adhesion.
If the wooden floor in very good condition,it is possible to limit its "cosmetic" alignment, strengthening the waterproofing layer over a metal grid, which will provide a strong bond with the tile.
Rules for the preparation of concrete foundations
First of all, remove the concrete floorold linoleum, paint, and so on. e., if they are there, and with the help of horizontal level check. If necessary, align the surface layer of the new sand-cement screed, or if minor defects of concrete, with a metal mesh. Clean the surface of screeds against dust, put on her coat of deep penetration of the universal primer.
It is important to know!
On the fresh sand and cement screed laidtiles can be only after 30 days or later. Ready sand and cement screeds for laying ceramic tiles is checked by making in various places of its surface some deep scratches. If the edges are durable and do not sprinkled, the concrete is ready for the next phase of work.
Prepare a "warm floor"
In cases with a concrete or wooden basewater or electric heating system "warm floor" system, how to prepare the ground similar to the preparation of conventional wooden or concrete foundations, but all the work can be carried out necessarily off the heating system.
If the tiles used as a finishcable coating "warm floor" on heat mats, such floor tiles ready for installation as soon as the heating mats are laid, tested and disconnected from the power supply. The tiles can be laid directly on the heating mat, choosing the appropriate tile adhesive.
Circuits and methods for laying tiles on the floor
Depending on whether you plan to createmulticolor panels or you want a simple monochrome flooring, laying tiles on the floor is performed by one of the traditional schemes. If you use only one-color tiles, it is usually placed on one of three options:
- Basic "seam in seam" - each next row of tiles exactly the same as the previous one. This is the most economical and popular scheme of installation.
- Driving "stitch in the seam" on the diagonal. Rows of tiles are laid at an angle of 45 °. This tile layout looks very interesting, but its implementation is associated with too much material consumption.
- "The Extension" - seams every next ryadyashifted with respect to the previous one. This scheme is widely used in the medieval architecture, popular today with the creation of interiors in the style of various eras.
The tiles can be laid in two colors for the base ordiagonal patterns "seam in seam" in a staggered or "stripes". These simple linear scheme could be used to create all sorts of multi-colored panels on the floor, or by combining the traditional circuits, create your own version of the author's ceramic tiles of different colors and sizes.
There are many ways to start laying tile, but three of them are the most popular.
Starting from the most visible corner
The method is most often used when laying tilesthe standard regimen, since it allows to use the maximum number of whole tiles in visible places. Tile, which have to be cut, you can put it where it will be furniture or other interior details. By choosing this method, carefully lay the first three tiles and their well-Align from them depends largely on the quality of styling the surface.
We start from the middle of the wall
The method is suitable when using the stacking scheme"Extension in" tiles. Determine the middle of the wall, from which plan to lay floor tiles - it is the "zero" point of laying the first tile. Each next row Lay the right and left of the center line of the first tile, do not forget to follow the horizontal: the edges of two adjacent tiles need to be on the same level.
Laying tiles from the center of the room
The method is ideal for the installation of ceramic tilesrooms with complex geometry, bay windows, columns, niches complex, as well as to create on the floor multi-colored panels and ornaments in the center of the room. To implement it on the floor slide perpendicular to each other and the two lines at the point where they intersect lay the first tile, and the rest of Lay it in the direction of a wall in accordance with the scheme of panels or ornamental.
Layout floor before laying
Before laying tiles on the floor, carefully mark the area in accordance with the selected scheme and method of installation.
If it is laying on the angle, select the mostvisible and free level and draw a triangle on the floor right in the top of which lay the first tile, and all subsequent right along the other two sides.
When laying floor tiles on the diagonal,to mark the starting point of laying the wall with a window so that the rows of tiles laid in parallel to the window are located. Failure to do so is too conspicuous, and a reference point on the wall is unreliable because the angle between them are not always perfectly straight, and the wall itself may not be too smooth.
Spacing the floor, consider in detail all the possibletrivia. Note that near the fireplace, columns or other stationary element of the interior is likely to have to cut the tiles, but the rest of her pieces have symmetrically.
After completing the layout, put "dry" without glueseveral rows of tiles and see if you are satisfied with the picture and did not make a mistake if you're with a scheme or method of installation. If you do not like everything, consider other options in order to prevent irreparable marriage.
Adhesives for floor tiles
For laying ceramic tiles traditionalusing cement-sand mortar, which is prepared in a ratio of parts of cement and sand of 1: 3. The thickness of the solution layer may life of 5-20 mm, depending on the condition and roughness of a base.
The modern market offers a variety ofpolymer-adhesives for ceramic tiles, having the best adhesion and provide tiled floor coverings very high strength at a thickness of the adhesive layer just 3-8 mm.
Sold modern polymer-tileAdhesives in the form of dry mixtures which are sufficiently diluted before use with water to the desired consistency. For particularly complex cases, such as high humidity, non-removable paint on the ground and so on. D., Has developed special cement-free adhesives. When laying the tiled floor in an unheated room, you can choose the frost-resistant tile adhesive.
It is important to know!
When laying tiles on a wooden floormix the cement and sand, polymer or glue with PVA glue and bring the water to the desired consistency. Before laying the prepared glue is applied on the tile and the base so that the lines of the toothed spatula placed at different angles - this will provide maximum adhesion and floor tiles.
Recommendations future tilers
Since the cement-sand mortar, andpolymer-blend for a tile grasped for 20-30 minutes, it is necessary to prepare them in small portions. For half an hour only an experienced professional time to put no more than three rows of tiles. Before laying tiles, soak for 20-30 minutes in warm water or in a 1% solution of calcium chloride or aluminum chloride - it will improve the adhesion of the tiles.
In the pre-lined with floor circuit begins to lay the tiles, causing a spatula and smooth layer of glue and press it tile by pressing a hand or gently tapping with a rubber mallet.
If you have a tile beacons align themthe first tile, and each subsequent equals on the previous one, while respecting aid restrictive crosses the same width seams and periodically checking the horizontal.
Having laid some tiles, immediately remove the excesssolution between them with a damp cloth. To remove excess adhesive or other polymer-soak a cloth in a solvent. If the tiles are laid in a poor or "dropped" from the horizontal, it should be removed from the adhesive layer, lay out and leveled with a spatula a new adhesive pad and re-laid tiles.
Every time invest a layer of adhesive area slightly larger perimeter tiles and touch check match horizontally over the edge and into the crosshairs of every four tiles.
It is important to know!
You can not lay a adhesive mortar on the cornerstiles, if there is a void - it will degrade the strength of the tiled floor in the operation. Try to push the tiles by hand or mallet, hammer into the solution until you hear no ringing, and the hollow sound when tapped.
Trimming and grouting
When laying the extreme series and outdoor decorationcover at fixed interior elements and devices can not do without cutting tiles. Qualitatively perform this operation possible, using portable plitkoreznym machine: it provides the accuracy required size up to 1 mm. The curved surface can be cut in the tile grinder.
If you do not like tech at handdevices, you can use an ordinary glass cutter, but when working with thicker tiles in this case, get ready for the problems: a small or narrow strip of tiles have to "bite" forceps or pliers.
A day after the laying of tilethe floor is possible to start a special grouting trowel mix, match the color of the tiles. Before performing this operation is not recommended: tile adhesive with solidification tends to shrink and this can lead to premature cracking jammed joints.
Cook the mixture trowel, bringing itthe consistency of sour cream until thick. Fill the mixture between the tiles by sliding a spatula and gently pushing herringbone structure of the joints. remove excess grout, spatula conducted in the seam. The thickness of the layer of grout can trim a segment of soft cable. An hour later, the remains of grouts can be cleaned with a damp sponge.
By the operation of your new ceramic tile flooring will be ready in 4-5 days. That's how much time is required to complete drying of the tile adhesive.