Concrete floor with their hands
On all the sites for industrial use,exposed to heavy loads, arrange concrete floors. In everyday life this type of flooring is found in garages, workshops, and other rooms for auxiliary use. Also, poured concrete floors in basements of country cottages. For strength, durability and affordability with concrete floors can not be compared to any other type of flooring.
- Concrete floors: casting technology
- Preparation sand and macadam base
- concrete floors Waterproofing
- Maps - formwork for pouring
- Reinforcement concrete floor
- Pouring of concrete and its alignment
- Sanding the surface of the concrete layer
- How to pour the concrete floor in the garage
Concrete floors: casting technology
Safety concrete floors device process can be divided into several stages:
- preparation of sand and crushed stone base;
- laying a reinforcing grid or frame;
- pouring concrete mix and its alignment;
- smoothing the surface of the concrete layer;
- polymer coating.
It should be noted that the concrete floor with your hands is quite able to make anyone but a partner is still required at the stage of pouring a concrete solution for rapid mixing.
In this case, the cost of the work will be considerably lower and will be reduced only to the costs of purchasing building materials yes award roustabout.
Preparation sand and macadam base
1. Before you start concrete floor on the ground deviceIt is necessary to carry out preparatory work.
2. Removed the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm at the site, which is expected to pour concrete.
The bottom is aligned with the level and compacted.
On a note! As tamping can use a homemade tool which is made from a meter or half-meter logs, nailed to a board. Sometimes craftsmen side of a vertical beam fasten the handle, the better to use a tool for compaction.
3. Next desyatisantimetrovyh poured a layer of sand, which spilled water and thoroughly compacted.
4. On top of the sand layer is laid rubble desyatisantimetrovyh size fractions which must be equal to 40-50 mm. Moreover, each layer must be sealed with tamper.
5. To create a flat surface on top of the crushed stone layer is poured a small layer of sand or gravel aggregate. Rammed the top layer again.
Important! To make it easier to monitor the thickness of the layers is poured, mark on the wall of the shallow levels at the desired height.
concrete floors Waterproofing
As a waterproofing layer can beuse specially manufactured roll materials or plain polyethylene. Thus it is desirable to select a polyethylene film having a thickness of 100-200 microns. Of the five-foot three-meter of the film can be made, if we cut from one side. For greater reliability polyethylene spread out in several layers. If the width of the room for more than three meters, then spread a cloth lap, coming on another sheet of 15-20 cm. Make sure the edges of the film must go to the wall at floor height, where they are secured with adhesive tape.
Maps - formwork for pouring
If the room has a large area, theninstallation of concrete floors is carried out boxes of a certain size, which are in professional language called "Map". Lots size depends on your productivity. Along the perimeter of the planned area formwork set, as a svezhepilenaya wet wood or special laminated plywood can be used. The map size is determined by the area of the floor, laid per shift, ie performance. Along the perimeter of the map is set formwork made of boards or special "opalubnoy" laminated plywood.
- To the thickness of the concrete floor was everywheresame, guides are used. For them it's best to use the tube of rectangular cross section, which are sold at each construction market. As a guide, you can also take a corner or in extreme cases, round tube. Suitable and edging board, a piece of wood if they have smooth edges.
- Before you pour the concrete, railssmeared with a special formwork oil, manufactured in Germany. This technique allows you to facilitate the separation of the guides from the hardened concrete, and quickly wash laitance. German tool can replace waste oil. If not, then fit a concentrated mixture of any existing detergent and water.
- Install guide for special pinsor "bun", made of thick concrete mix. Sends the output to a strictly horizontal state with an optical leveling, the water level or the level of a conventional building.
Reinforcement concrete floor
As a reinforcement can be usedroad network (5h100h100 mm). Other suitable mesh materials having smaller cells. In the market you can find plastic mesh, which cells are rather large, produced by manufacturers specifically for the reinforcement of concrete screeds.
Important! Reinforcing mesh can not be laid directly on the ground, as this will not give the desired effect. Rigid mesh is raised no more than 1/3 the thickness of the screed, for setting podstavochki. Builders call them "chairs". Podstavochki positioned on rectangles cut from the sheeting. If the reinforcing mesh is soft, its pull on the pins, which are stuck into the ground.
Reinforcing cage is satisfied ifconcrete floor will be subjected to high loads. When this frame is produced by knitting from the metal rods, whose thickness is from 8 mm to 16 mm. In this case, a more intense vibration compaction concrete.
Pouring of concrete and its alignment
Since the pouring of concrete floor should be conductedwithout long breaks, it is advisable to rent a concrete mixer while working with their hands. Self preparation grout is cheaper than buying ready-mixed concrete. Although it is necessary to calculate everything: the cost of materials and their delivery systems, equipment rental, electricity costs. Concrete quality depends on the ingredients used to knead the solution. Cement is not selected below the M400, but better - M500. The sand must be free of impurities, without clay and mud. A solution is prepared from cement, sand, gravel, water, taken in the ratio 1: 2: 4: 0.4.
Concrete carefully dumped in the "map" andleveled shovel, making it bayonet movements which allow to condense and remove excess air from the solution. It is best for these purposes to use the vibrator. When the vibrator dipped in this concrete mix staggered. Once on the surface it appears laitance and rubble falls down, the process of vibration transferred to another place.
Line the concrete with the help of three-meter rule (special building tool), which relies on fixed rails.
Important! To rule could without falling and failure to move on the guide, it is necessary to maintain a distance between them of 2.5 m.
A closer alignment of concrete carried out with the help of trowel. This tool make semicircular motion over the surface of the concrete floor with a small amplitude.
Important! Care concrete screed is a three-day wetting the surface with water. It was then covered with polyethylene film to a layer of concrete to dry uniformly. It is desirable to exclude the presence of drafts, as well as contact with the concrete floor from direct sunlight.
Sanding the surface of the concrete layer
Facing the outside in the process of hardening concretelaitance solution solidifies smooth film on the surface. This can prevent subsequent adhesion of the concrete floor with topcoat. Therefore, after a few hours or at most the next day after pouring the concrete necessary to grind the surface as a result of which get rid of the film. There are special grinders, but on their own can perform this operation using a hand grinder. To him it is necessary to purchase special corundum grid.
How to pour the concrete floor in the garage
If wood floor in your garage subject to repair, it is better to dismantle and replace the concrete pavement. In this case, the following operations:
- Spend floor dismantling, removing baseboards using scrap and floor boards at a time.
- Measure the distance from the floor to the surfaceground. 30 cm is necessary to lay desyatisantimetrovyh crushed stone layer pyatisantimetrovym sand layer, the waterproof seal, insulation, and a layer of concrete mortar. If the measured distance is less than the specified value, then perform the dredging pit.
- Pour sand, then gravel and sand again. Smooth each layer and tamp thoroughly.
- Spread waterproofing material, and it should go to the ends of the wall, to which the film is attached with adhesive tape.
- Fitted with insulating panels, cutting them into pieces of desired size. From the remnants must be cut into strips 10 cm wide and place them along the walls around the perimeter.
- Start from the far corner lay the concrete, moving slowly toward the door.
- Level the surface of the concrete rectangular wooden block.
- Use a trowel to level depressions.
- Powertrowel all irregularities finishing trowel.
- Leave the concrete floor for a few days to harden.
- Make of three-centimeter piece of wood slats (beacons), the length of which shall be equal to the width of the room.
- Set the rack beacons from wall to wall and pour the concrete floor.
- Then remove the rack and the resulting seizure fill with concrete mix.
- Spend leveling screed in the direction of the edges and doors.
- Leave for three days for the screed pour.
- Concrete floor ready.
If, after reading the article you have anyquestions about how to make a concrete floor, then ask about it in the comments. We will try to dispel your doubts. Gather materials, construction tools and begin to master the science of erection of a concrete floor with his hands.